# Physics of Everyday Phenomena : A Conceptual Introduction to Physics

by: GRIFFITH

**ISBN 13:**## 9780072509779

**ISBN 10:**## 0072509775

**Edition:**4th**Format:**Hardcover**Copyright:**06/27/2003**Publisher:**McGraw-Hill Science/Engineering/Math- Newer Edition

Note: Not guaranteed to come with supplemental materials (access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.)

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### Table of Contents

Read morePreface | p. xi |

Acknowledgments | p. xiii |

Physics, the Fundamental Science | p. 1 |

The Scientific Enterprise | p. 2 |

The Scope of Physics | p. 4 |

The Case of the Malfunctioning Coffee Pot | p. 5 |

The Role of Measurement and Mathematics in Physics | p. 7 |

Physics and Everday Phenomena | p. 9 |

How to Use the Features of This Book | p. 10 |

Sample Question: How Reliable Is Astrology? | p. 12 |

Sample Exercise: Conversions | p. 12 |

Summary | p. 13 |

Key Terms | p. 13 |

Questions | p. 13 |

Exercises | p. 14 |

Challenge Problem | p. 14 |

Home Experiment and Observation | p. 14 |

The newtonian Revolution | |

Describing Motion | p. 16 |

Average and Instantaneous Speed | p. 17 |

Unit Conversions | p. 18 |

Velocity | p. 20 |

Acceleration | p. 21 |

Sample Exercise: Negative Accelerations | p. 23 |

Graphing Motion | p. 24 |

The 100-m Dash | p. 26 |

Uniform Acceleration | p. 27 |

Sample Exercise: Uniform Acceleration | p. 29 |

Summary | p. 30 |

Key Terms | p. 31 |

Questions | p. 31 |

Exercises | p. 32 |

Challenge Problems | p. 33 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 34 |

Falling Objects and Projectile Motion | p. 35 |

Acceleration Due to Gravity | p. 36 |

Tracking a Falling Object | p. 39 |

Sample Exercise: Throwing a Ball Downward | p. 41 |

Beyond Free Fall: Throwing a Ball Upward | p. 41 |

Sample Exercise: Throwing a Ball Upward | p. 43 |

Projectile Motion | p. 43 |

Sample Exercise: Projectile Motion | p. 45 |

Hitting a Target | p. 46 |

Shooting a Basketball | p. 48 |

Summary | p. 49 |

Key Terms | p. 50 |

Questions | p. 50 |

Exercises | p. 52 |

Challenge Problems | p. 53 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 53 |

Newton's Laws: Explaining Motion | p. 54 |

A Brief History | p. 55 |

Newton's First and Second Laws | p. 57 |

Sample Exercise: Finding the Net Force | p. 59 |

Mass and Weight | p. 60 |

Sample Exercise: Computing Weights | p. 61 |

Newton's Third Law | p. 62 |

Riding an Elevator | p. 64 |

Applications of Newton's Laws | p. 65 |

Sample Exercise: Connected Objects | p. 68 |

Summary | p. 69 |

Key Terms | p. 69 |

Questions | p. 70 |

Exercises | p. 71 |

Challenge Problems | p. 72 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 73 |

Circular Motion, the Planets, and Gravity | p. 74 |

Centripetal Acceleration | p. 75 |

Sample Exercise: Circular Motion of a Ball on a String | p. 77 |

Centripetal Forces | p. 78 |

Planetary Motion | p. 80 |

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation | p. 84 |

Gravity, Your Weight, and the Weight of the Earth | p. 86 |

The Moon and Other Satellites | p. 87 |

Explaining the Tides | p. 89 |

Summary | p. 90 |

Key Terms | p. 91 |

Questions | p. 91 |

Exercises | p. 93 |

Challenge Problems | p. 93 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 94 |

Energy and Oscillations | p. 95 |

Simple Machines, Work, and Power | p. 96 |

Sample Exercise: How Much Work? | p. 98 |

Kinetic Energy | p. 99 |

Sample Exercise: Work and Kinetic Energy | p. 100 |

Potential Energy | p. 101 |

Sample Exercise: Potential Energy | p. 101 |

Conservation of Energy | p. 103 |

Sample Exercise: The Swing of a Pendulum | p. 105 |

Energy and the Pole Vault | p. 106 |

Springs and Simple Harmonic Motion | p. 107 |

Summary | p. 110 |

Key Terms | p. 111 |

Questions | p. 111 |

Exercises | p. 112 |

Challenge Problems | p. 113 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 114 |

Momentum and Impulse | p. 115 |

Momentum and Impulse | p. 116 |

Sample Exercise: The Momentum and Impulse of Golf | p. 119 |

Conservation of Momentum | p. 119 |

Sample Exercise: A Head-on Collision | p. 121 |

Recoil | p. 121 |

Elastic and Inelastic Collisions | p. 123 |

Sample Exercise: When Railroad Cars Couple | p. 124 |

Collisions at an Angle | p. 125 |

An Automobile Collision | p. 127 |

Summary | p. 129 |

Key Terms | p. 129 |

Questions | p. 130 |

Exercises | p. 131 |

Challenge Problems | p. 132 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 133 |

Rotational Motion of Solid Objects | p. 134 |

What Is Rotational Motion? | p. 135 |

Sample Exercise: Rotating a Merry-Go-Round | p. 137 |

Torque and Balance | p. 138 |

Sample Exercise: Balancing a System | p. 140 |

Rotational Interia and Newton's Second Law | p. 141 |

Sample Exercise: Turning a Merry-Go-Round and a Rider | p. 144 |

Conservation of Angular Momentum | p. 144 |

Sample Exercise: Some Physics of Figure Skating | p. 146 |

Achieving the State of Yo | p. 147 |

Riding a Bicycle and Other Amazing Feats | p. 148 |

Summary | p. 151 |

Key Terms | p. 152 |

Questions | p. 152 |

Exercises | p. 153 |

Challenge Problems | p. 154 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 155 |

Fluids and Heat | |

The Behavior of Fluids | p. 158 |

Pressure and Pascal's Principle | p. 159 |

Sample Exercise: Some Basics of Jacks | p. 161 |

Atmospheric Pressure and the Behavior of Gases | p. 162 |

Sample Exercise: How Does a Gas Change with Pressure? | p. 165 |

Archimedes' Principle | p. 165 |

Fluids in Motion | p. 168 |

Bernoulli's Principle | p. 171 |

Throwing a Curve Ball | p. 174 |

Summary | p. 175 |

Key Terms | p. 176 |

Questions | p. 176 |

Exercises | p. 177 |

Challenge Problems | p. 178 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 178 |

Temperature and Heat | p. 179 |

Temperature and Its Measurement | p. 180 |

Heat and Specific Heat Capacity | p. 183 |

Sample Exercise: Changing Ice to Water | p. 186 |

Joule's Experiment and the First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 186 |

Sample Exercise: Applying the First Law of Thermodynamics | p. 189 |

Gas Behavior and the First Law | p. 189 |

The Flow of Heat | p. 192 |

Solar Collectors and the Greenhouse Effect | p. 194 |

Summary | p. 195 |

Key Terms | p. 196 |

Questions | p. 197 |

Exercises | p. 198 |

Challenge Problems | p. 198 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 199 |

Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 200 |

Heat Engines | p. 201 |

Sample Exercise: How Efficient Is This Engine? | p. 202 |

The Second Law of Thermodynamics | p. 204 |

Sample Exercise: Carnot Efficiency | p. 205 |

Refrigerators, Heat Pumps, and Entropy | p. 206 |

Thermal Power Plants and Energy Resources | p. 209 |

Perpetual Motion and Energy Frauds | p. 212 |

A Productive Pond | p. 214 |

Summary | p. 215 |

Key Terms | p. 216 |

Questions | p. 216 |

Exercises | p. 217 |

Challenge Problems | p. 218 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 219 |

Electricity and Magnetism | |

Electrostatic Phenomena | p. 222 |

Effects of Electric Charge | p. 223 |

Insulators and Conductors | p. 226 |

The Electrostatic Force: Coulomb's Law | p. 228 |

Sample Exercise: Calculating Electrostatic Force | p. 230 |

The Electric Field | p. 231 |

Sample Exercise: An Electric Field | p. 232 |

Electric Potential | p. 233 |

Sample Exercise: Finding the Electric Potential | p. 235 |

Lightning | p. 237 |

Summary | p. 238 |

Key Terms | p. 239 |

Questions | p. 239 |

Exercises | p. 240 |

Challenge Problems | p. 241 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 242 |

Electric Circuits | p. 243 |

Electric Circuits and Electric Current | p. 244 |

Ohm's Law and Resistance | p. 247 |

Sample Exercise: Examining a Circuit's Current and Voltage | p. 249 |

Series and Parallel Circuits | p. 249 |

Sample Exercise: Resistance and Current of Light Bulbs in Parallel | p. 253 |

Electric Energy and Power | p. 254 |

Sample Exercise: Analyzing a Circuit | p. 256 |

Alternating Current and Household Circuits | p. 257 |

The Hidden Switch in Your Toaster | p. 259 |

Sample Exercise: Light-Bulb Physics | p. 260 |

Summary | p. 261 |

Key Terms | p. 262 |

Questions | p. 263 |

Exercises | p. 265 |

Challenge Problems | p. 266 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 266 |

Magnets and Electromagnetism | p. 268 |

Magnets and the Magnetic Force | p. 269 |

Magnetic Effects of Electric Currents | p. 272 |

Sample Exercise: Magnetic Force | p. 275 |

Magnetic Effects of Current Loops | p. 275 |

Direct-Current Motors | p. 278 |

Farady's Law: Electromagnetic Induction | p. 279 |

Sample Exercise: How Much Voltage Is Induced? | p. 281 |

Generators and Transformers | p. 282 |

Summary | p. 285 |

Key Terms | p. 286 |

Questions | p. 286 |

Exercises | p. 287 |

Challenge Problems | p. 288 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 288 |

Wave Motion and Optics | |

Making Waves | p. 292 |

Wave Pulses and Periodic Waves | p. 293 |

Waves on a Rope | p. 295 |

Sample Exercise: Making Waves | p. 297 |

Interference and Standing Waves | p. 298 |

Sample Exercise: Waves and Harmonics | p. 300 |

Sound Waves | p. 301 |

A Moving Car Horn and the Doppler Effect | p. 304 |

Electromagnetic Waves | p. 305 |

Sample Exercise: Frequencies of Two Kinds of Electromagnetic Waves | p. 308 |

Summary | p. 309 |

Key Terms | p. 310 |

Questions | p. 310 |

Exercises | p. 311 |

Challenge Problems | p. 312 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 313 |

Light and Image Formation | p. 314 |

Reflection and Image Formation | p. 315 |

Refraction of Light | p. 318 |

Rainbows | p. 322 |

Lenses and Image Formation | p. 322 |

Sample Exercise: A Virtual Magnified Image | p. 325 |

Eyeglasses, Microscopes, and Telescopes | p. 326 |

Interference and Diffraction of Light | p. 331 |

Sample Exercise: Working with the Double-Slit Experiment | p. 333 |

Summary | p. 335 |

Key Terms | p. 336 |

Questions | p. 336 |

Exercises | p. 337 |

Challenge Problems | p. 338 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 338 |

The atom and Its nucleus | |

The Structure of the Atom | p. 342 |

The Existence of Atoms: Evidence from Chemistry | p. 343 |

Cathode Rays, Electrons, and X Rays | p. 347 |

Electrons and Television | p. 348 |

Radioactivity and the Discovery of the Nucleus | p. 351 |

Atomic Spectra and the Bohr Model of the Atom | p. 354 |

Sample Exercise: Energy Levels in a Hydrogen Atom | p. 358 |

Particle Waves and Quantum Mechanics | p. 358 |

Summary | p. 362 |

Key Terms | p. 363 |

Questions | p. 363 |

Exercises | p. 364 |

Challenge Problems | p. 364 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 365 |

The Nucleus and Nuclear Energy | p. 366 |

The Structure of the Nucleus | p. 367 |

Radioactive Decay | p. 370 |

Radiation Exposure | p. 373 |

Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Fission | p. 374 |

Sample Exercise: Transforming Mass Energy into Kinetic Energy | p. 375 |

Nuclear Reactors | p. 377 |

What Happened at Chernobyl? | p. 380 |

Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Fusion | p. 382 |

Summary | p. 386 |

Key Terms | p. 387 |

Questions | p. 387 |

Exercises | p. 388 |

Challenge Problems | p. 388 |

Home Experiment and Observation | p. 389 |

Relativity and Beyond | |

Relativity | p. 392 |

Relative Motion in Classical Physics | p. 393 |

The Speed of Light and Einstein's Postulates | p. 396 |

Time Dilation and Length Contraction | p. 400 |

Sample Exercise: A Contraction in Length | p. 403 |

Newton's Laws and Mass-Energy Equivalence | p. 403 |

The Twin Paradox | p. 404 |

Sample Exercise: Adding Energy Adds Mass | p. 406 |

General Relativity | p. 407 |

Summary | p. 411 |

Key Terms | p. 411 |

Questions | p. 412 |

Exercises | p. 413 |

Challenge Problems | p. 413 |

Home Experiment and Observation | p. 414 |

Beyond Everyday Phenomena | p. 415 |

Quarks and Other Elementary Particles | p. 416 |

Cosmology and the Beginning of Time | p. 420 |

Semiconductors and Microelectronics | p. 422 |

Computers and Artificial Intelligence | p. 426 |

Superconductors and Other New Materials | p. 428 |

Holograms | p. 431 |

Summary | p. 433 |

Key Terms | p. 433 |

Questions | p. 434 |

Exercises | p. 434 |

Challenge Problems | p. 435 |

Home Experiments and Observations | p. 435 |

Using Simple Algebra | p. 437 |

Decimal Fractions, Percentages, and Scientific Notation | p. 441 |

Vectors and Vector Addition | p. 445 |

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises and Challenge Problems | p. 451 |

Photo Credits | p. 454 |

Glossary | p. 455 |

Index | p. 465 |

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