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The past two decades have seen unparalleled developments in our knowledge of the brain and mind. However, these advances have forced us to confront head-on some significant ethical issues regarding our application of this information in the real world- whether using brain images to establish guilt within a court of law, or developing drugs to enhance cognition. Historically, any consideration of the ethical, legal, and social implications of emerging technologies in science and medicine has lagged behind the discovery of the technology itself. These delays have caused problems in the acceptability and potential applications of biomedical advances and posed significant problems for the scientific community and the public alike - for example in the case of genetic screening and human cloning. The field of Neuroethics aims to proactively anticipate ethical, legal and social issues at the intersection of neuroscience and ethics, raising questions about what the brain tells us about ourselves, whether the information is what people want or ought to know, and how best to communicate it. A landmark in the academic literature, the Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics presents a pioneering review of a topic central to the sciences and humanities. It presents a range of chapters considering key issues, discussion, and debate at the intersection of brain and ethics. The handbook contains more than 50 chapters by leaders from around the world and a broad range of sectors of academia and clinical practice spanning the neurosciences, medical sciences and humanities and law. The book focuses on and provides a platform for dialogue of what neuroscience can do, what we might expect neuroscience will do, and what neuroscience ought to do. The major themes include: consciousness and intention; responsibility and determinism; mind and body; neurotechnology; ageing and dementia; law and public policy; and science, society and international perspectives. Tackling some of the most significant ethical issues that face us now and will continue to do so over the coming decades, The Oxford Handbook of Neuroethics will be an essential resource for the field of neuroethics for graduate students and postdoctoral fellows, basic scientists in the neurosciences and psychology, scholars in humanities and law, as well as physicians practising in the areas of primary care in neurological medicine.
Table of Contents
Preface, Judy Illes and Barbara J. Sahakian Foreword, Alan I. Leshner Consciousness and Intention: Decoding Mental States and Decision Making Brain Reading: Decoding Mental States from Brain Activity in Humans, John Dylan-Haynes The Neurobiology of Pleasure and Happiness, Morten Kringelbach and Kent C. Berridge The Neurobiological Basis of Morality, Christopher Suhler and Patricia Churchland Development of the Adolescent Brain: Neuroethical Implications for the Understanding of Executive Function and Social Cognition, Monica Luciana Neural Foundations to Conscious and Volitional Control of Emotional Behaviour: A Mentalistic Perspective, Mario Beauregard Neural Correlates of Deception, Georgio Ganis and J. Peter Rosenfeld Understanding Disorders of Consciousness, Camile Chatelle and Steven Laureys Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Covert Awareness, and Brain Injury, Adrian M. Owen Responsibility and Determinism Genetic Determinism, Neuronal Determinism, and Determinism Tout Court, Bernard Baertschi and Alexandre Mauron The Rise of Neuroessentialism, Peter B. Reiner A Neuroscientific Approach to Addiction: Ethical Concerns, Martina Reske and Martin P. Paulus The Neurobiology of Addiction: Implications for Voluntary Control of Behaviour, Steven E. Hyman Neuroethics of Free Will, Patrick Haggard Mind and Body Pharmaceutical Cognitive Enhancement, Sharon Morein-Zamir and Barbara J. Sahakian Cognitive Enhancement, Elisabeth Hildt and Thomas Metzinger Chemical Cognitive Enhancement: Is it Unfair, Unjust, Discriminatory or Cheating for Healthy Adults to Use Smart Drugs?, John Harris Cognitive Enhancement in Courts, Anders Sandberg, Walter Sinnott-Armstrong, and Julian Savulescu Neuroethics and the Extended Mind, Neil Levy Does Cognitive Enhancement Fit with the Physiology of our Cognition?, Herve Chneiweiss ADHD: Defining a Spectrum Disorder and Considering Neuroethical Implications, James M. Swanson, Timothy Wigal, Kimberley Lakes, and Nora D. Volkow Neurotechnology Why Neuroethicists are Needed, Ruth Fischbach and Janet Mindes Intersecting Complexities in Neuroimaging and Neuroethics, Carole Federico, Sofia Lombera, and Judy Illes Pediatric Neuroimaging Research, Michael R. Hadskis and MatthiasH. Schmidt Ethical Issues in Functional Neurosurgery: Emerging Applications and Controversies, Nir Lipsman and Mark Bernstein Noninvasive Brain Stimulation as a Therapeutic and Investigative Tool: An Ethical Appraisal, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Felipe Fregni, and Megan S. Steven, and Lachlan Forrow DBS for Treatment-Resistant Neuropsychiatric Disorders, Debra J.H. Matthews, Peter V. Rabins, and Ben D. Greenberg The Ethical Issues of Trials of Neural Grafting in Patients with Neurodegenerative Conditions, Roger A. Barker and Alisdair Coles The Ethics of Nano/Neuro Convergence, George Khushf Aging and Dementia Neurobiological and Neuroethical Perspectives on the Contribution of Functional Neuroimaging to the Study of Aging in the Brain, Karima Kahlaoui, Maximiliano Wilson, Ana Ines Ansaldo, Bernadette Ska, and Yves Joanette Clinical Research on Conditions Affecting Cognitive Capacity, Samia Hurst Ethical Concerns and Pitfalls in Neurogenetic Testing, Ging-Yuek Robin Hsiung Neuroethical Issues in Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease, Marilyn S. Albert and Guy M. McKhann The Neuroethics of Cognitive Reserve, Jerry Samet and Yaakov Stern Ethical Issues in the Management of Parkinson's Disease, Silke Appel-Cresswell and A. Jon Stoessl The Other Ethical Challenge of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Adrian J. Ivinson Future Scoping: Ethical Issues in Ageing and Dementia, Julian C. Hughes Law and Public Policy Incidental Findings in Neuroscience Research: A Fundamental Challenge to the Structure of Bioethics and Health Law, Susan M. Wolf What Will Be the Limits of Neuroscience-Based Mindreading in the Law?, Emily R. Murphy and Henry T. Greely For the Law, Neuroscience Changes Nothing and Everything, Joshua Greene and Jonathan Cohen New Directions in Neuroscience Policy, Teneille R. Brown and Jennifer B. McCormick Women's Neuroethics, Stacey A. Tovino Public Representations of Neurogenetics, Amy Zarzeczny and Timothy Caulfield Brain Trust: Neuroscience and National Security in the Twenty-First Century, Jonathan D. Moreno Science, Society, and International Perspectives Neuroplasticity, Culture and Society, Bruce E. Wexler Neuroscience and Neuroethics in the 21st Century, Martha J. Farah Neuroscience and the Media: Ethical Challenges and Opportunities, Eric Racine Ethical Issues in Educational Neuroscience: Raising Children in a Brave New World, Zachary Stein, Bruno della Chiesa, Christina Hinton, and Kurt W. Fischer From the Internationalization to the Globalization of Neuroethics: Some Perspectives and Challenges, Daofen Chen and Remi Quirion Global Health Ethics, Jessica Evert, Robert Huish, Gary Heit, Evaleen Jones, Scott Loeliger, and Steve Schmidbauer Ethical Perspectives: Clinical Drug Trials in Developing Countries, Craig van Dyke Learning about Neuroethics Through Health Sciences Online: A Model for Global Dissemination, Kate Tairyan and Erica Frank Epilogue: Neuroethics and the Lure of Technology, Joseph J. Fins