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This first hands-on guide to ISO-compliant LCA makes this powerful tool immediately accessible to both small and large companies. Following a general introduction on the philosophy and purpose of LCA, this practical volume takes readers through all the stages of a complete LCA analysis, with each step exemplified by real-life data from a major LCA project on beverage packaging. Special sections cover such globally important sustainability measures as carbon and water footprints, based on the most recent international standards and definitions. Written by one of the pioneers of LCA, this book is targeted at first-time LCA users but equally makes a much-valued reference for more experienced practitioners.
Walter Kl?pffer is a consultant for life cycle and chemicals assessment based in Frankfurt (Germany). He is also a Professor of physical chemistry at the University of Mainz (ever since the habilitation in 1995). After his studies of chemistry at the University of Graz he was (1964-1922) researcher and manager (1981-1985) at the Battelle Institute e.V. in Frankfurt. Professor Kl?pffer is the founding editor and current editor-in-chief of 'The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment'.
Birgit Grahl studied Chemistry at University of Hamburg (Germany) and headed the chemistry department of the ?ko-Institut Freiburg, followed by several years at a commercial research laboratory. She is now working as a consultant in the field of industrial ecology, in addition to serving as a professor for Industrial Ecology at the University of Applied Sciences in L?beck. She was involved in the development of the ISO 14040 series and is a member of the editorial board of 'The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment'.
Table of Contents
1 Introduction What is Life Cycle Assessment? History of LCA The Framework of an LCA Analysis Standards and Regulations Literature and Other Information Sources References
2 Goal and Scope Definition of the Goal Definition of the Scope Case Study: Beverage Packaging (PET Bottle versus Drink Carton) References
3 Inventory Analysis Fundamentals Energy Analysis Allocation Data Collection, Origin and Quality Data Aggregation and Units Presentation of the Results Case Study: Beverage Packaging (PET Bottle versus Drink Carton) References
4 Impact Assessment Fundamentals Critical Volume Approach Assessment According to ISO 14040 and 14044 Environmental Impact Categories Approach Impact Categories, Indicators, and Characterization Factors Case Study: Beverage Packaging (PET Bottle versus Drink Carton) References
5 Interpretation, Reporting, and Critical Review Importance of Interpretation Interpretation According to ISO Analysis of Results Reporting Critical Review Case Study: Beverage Packaging (PET Bottle versus Drink Carton) References
6 From LCA to Sustainability Analysis Sustainability The Three Dimensions of Sustainability Comparison of Methods: LCA, LCC, SLCA How Many Assessments Do We Need? Conclusions References
APPENDIX Solutions to Problems List of Acronyms Subject Index