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With the success ofThe Bedford Researcher, Mike Palmquist has earned a devoted following of teachers and students who appreciate his accessible approach to the process of inquiry-based writing. Now he brings his proven methodology and friendly tone toJoining the Conversation. While students may know how to send text messages, search for images, and read the news online all at the same time, they don't necessarily know how to juggle the skills they need to engage readers and compose a meaningful contribution to an academic conversation. Meeting students where they are working online and collaboratively Joining the Conversationembraces the new realities of writing, without sacrificing the support that students need as they write for college and beyond.
Mike Palmquist is an Associate Vice Provost for Learning and Teaching at Colorado State University and the Director of CSU’s Institute for Learning and Teaching. A professor of English and University Distinguished Teaching Scholar, he is recognized nationally for his work in computer-supported writing instruction and, in particular, in designing Web-based instructional materials to support writing. His most recent Web-based projects are Writing@CSU (http://writing.colostate.edu), the writing center Web site at Colorado State University, and the WAC Clearinghouse (http://wac.colostate.edu), the leading site for communication across the curriculum. He is the author of numerous articles and essays on writing and teaching with technology and writing across the curriculum. In 2004, he received the Charles Moran Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Field, which recognizes "exemplary scholarship and professional service to the field of computers and writing." He is the author of The Bedford Researcher, Third Edition (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2009).
Table of Contents
Part One: Thinking of writing as conversation 1. making connections Key Questions Why think of writing as conversation? You already know how conversations work—online and off Practice: Inventory Your Writing Life Conversations help you share information, ideas, and arguments Practice: Find a Written Conversation Conversation allows you to adopt roles Working Together: Exploring Roles What should I know about writing situations? Writing has a purpose Readers have purposes, needs, interests, and backgrounds Writing builds on the work of others Writing takes place in context Working Together: Analyzing a Writing Situation What should I know about genre and design? Genres are general categories of documents Design is a writing tool Genre and design are related Genres help writers achieve their goals Practice: Analyze a Genre In Summary: Making Connections 2. getting started Key Questions How can I analyze an assignment? Assess your writing situation Determine your purpose Determine who your readers are and why they would read your document Consider the role of sources Identify the context Note requirements and limitations Recognize opportunities Working Together: Analyzing an Assignment How can I find interesting conversations? Generate Ideas Brainstorm Freewrite Loop Cluster Map Ask Questions Practice: Find a Topic that Interests You How can I "listen in" on written conversations? Discuss the topic with others Observe the topic first-hand Read what others have written Focus your attention Practice: Choose a Conversation How can I prepare for a successful writing project? Take ownership Understand that writing is a process Finding a conversation and listening in Developing your ideas Preparing a draft Reviewing and rewriting Create a writer’s notebook Manage your time Practice: Create a Project Timeline In Summary: Getting Started 3. Reading to WriteKey Questions How can I read critically? Read with an attitude Be aware of writing situations What strategies can I use to read actively? Skim for an overview Mark and annotate Pay attention Recognize the type of document Identify the main point Find reasons and evidence that support the main point Working Together: Identify Information in a Source Consider illustrations Record new information and challenging ideas How can I evaluate sources? Determine relevance Consider the use of evidence Identify the author Learn about the publisher Establish timeliness Assess comprehensiveness Recognize genre Examine electronic sources closely Practice: Evaluate a Source How can I read like a writer? Read to understand Main-point summaries Key-point summaries Outline summaries Practice: Summarize a Source Read to respond Agree/disagree responses Reflective responses Analytic responses Practice: Respond to a Source Read to make connections Working Together: Make Connections among Sources In Summary: Reading to Write 4. Working Together Key Questions Why should I work with other writers? Work together to improve your document Work together to enhance your writing process Work together to succeed on a major project Working Together: Develop guidelines for working together How can I work with others on individual projects? Generate and refine ideas Group brainstorming Role playing Working Together: Role play Collect and work with information Respond to written work General guidelines for writers General guidelines for reviewers How can I work with others on collaborative projects? Understand the purposes of writing collaboratively Understand potential problems and develop solutions Establish ground rulesWorking Together: Establish ground rules for a collaborative writing project Create a project plan Working Together: Create a plan for a collaborative writing project What resources can I draw on as I work with other writers? Technological tools Instructors, classmates, friends, and family In Summary: Working Together Part Two: Contributing to a Conversation 5. Writing to Reflect Genres in Conversation: Reflective Writing Key Questions What is writing to reflect? The Writer’s Role: Observer What kinds of documents are used to share reflections? Memoirs Waterloo, Firoozeh Dumas Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Waterloo" Photo Essays Lost Memories, Kazuyoshi Ehara Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Lost Memories" Short Stories How to Fight Monsters, Sherman Alexie Starting a Conversation: Respond to "How to Fight Monsters" Literacy Narratives Among the Believers, Tayari Jones Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Among the Believers" ReflectiveEssays This Isn’t the Last Dance, Rick BraggStarting a Conversation: Respond to "This Isn’t the Last Dance" How can I write a reflective essay? Featured Writer: Caitlin Guariglia, A Reflective Essay about a Summer Vacation Find a conversation and listen in Explore your experiences Ask questions about promising subjects Working Together: Try it out loud Conduct an observation Decide whether to conduct an observation Decide what you should observe and how often to observe it Decide what to look for Find out whether you need permission to observe Conduct your observation In Process: Conducting an Observation Reflect on your subject Examine your subject Explore processes Consider implications Examine similarities and differences Trace causes and effects Consider value Identify challenges and difficulties Reflect on your experiences Collect details Describe your subject Compare your subject with something else In Process: Making Comparisons Discuss your ideas Learn more about your subject Find significance Prepare your draft Convey your main idea Tell a story Go into detail Choose your point of view Consider genre and design Frame your reflections Review and improve your draft Ensure that your main idea is clear Examine the presentation of your observations Review dialogue In Process: Adding Dialogue Show, don’t tell Peer Review: Improve Your Reflective Essay Student Essay Mi Famiglia, Caitlin Guariglia Project Ideas In Summary: Writing a Reflective Essay 6. Writing to Inform Genres in Conversation: Informative Writing Key Questions What is writing to inform? The Writer’s Role: Reporter What kinds of documents are used to inform? Brochures Keep Me Wild, California Department of Fish and Game Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Keep Me Wild" Web Sites Uncovering America: The Asian-American Journey, CNNStarting a Conversation: Respond to "Uncovering America" Newspaper Articles Devices Enforce Silence of Cellphones, Illegally, Matt Richtel Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Devices Enforce Silence of Cellphones, Illegally" Profiles Danger Is Their Middle Name, Chris Nashawaty and Art Streiber Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Danger Is Their Middle Name" Essays The Legacy of Antigay Discrimination, George Chauncey Starting a Conversation: Respond to "The Legacy of Antigay Discrimination" How can I write an informative essay? Featured Writer: Hannah Steiner, An Informative Essay about the Hydrogen Economy Find a conversation and listen in Explore your interests Working Together: Try It Out Loud Use your library In Process: Using the Library Catalog Ask questions about promising subjects In Process: Asking Questions Gather information Create a search plan Working Together: Plan to Search for Sources Collect sources Evaluate your sources In Process: Evaluating sources Take notes Conduct an interview Decide whether to conduct an interview Decide whom to interview Decide what to ask Carry out the interview Prepare a draft Present your main point Develop supporting points and evidence Choose your supporting points Working Together: Brainstorm Supporting Points Identify evidence for each supporting point In Process: Developing Support Consider genre and design Frame your information Review and improve your draft Focus your discussion Ensure clarity Review your use of sources Assess your introduction and conclusion Peer Review: Improve Your Informative Essay Student Essay Barriers on the Road to a Hydrogen Economy, Hannah Steiner Project Ideas In Summary: Writing an Informative Essay 7. writing to analyze Genres in Conversation: Analytical Writing Key Questions What is writing to analyze? The Writer’s Role: Interpreter What kinds of documents are used to present analysis? Web-based Articles Race and the White Coat, Rahul K. Parikh, MDStarting a Conversation: Respond to "Race and the White Coat" News Analyses U.S. Population Hits 300 Million, Aida AklStarting a Conversation: Respond to "U.S. Population Hits 300 Million" Multimedia Presentations Is Snowboarding Losing Its Edge?, Joanne Fisker Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Is Snowboarding Losing Its Edge?" Literary Criticism J.K. Rowling’s Ministry of Magic, Stephen King Starting a Conversation: Respond to "J.K. Rowling’s Ministry of Magic" Analytical essays Generation Debt, Tamara Draut Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Generation Debt" How can I write an analytical essay? Featured Writer: Alison Bizzul, An Analytical Essay about Football and Health Find a conversation and listen in Explore your surroundings Ask interpretive questions Working Together: Try It Out Loud Search databases In Process: Searching a Database Conduct your analysis Refine your question Seek a fuller understanding of your subject Division Classification Apply an interpretive framework Trend Analysis Causal Analysis Data Analysis Text Analysis In Process: Applying Interpretive Frameworks Prepare a draft Make an interpretive claim Explain your interpretation Provide relevant reasons for your interpretation Working Together: Generate Reasons for Your Interpretation Support your reasons with evidence In Process: Supporting Reasons with Evidence Establish the context Consider genre and design In Process: Using a Figure to Support a Point Frame your analysis Introduction Conclusion Organization Review and improve your draft Ensure that your claim is debatable Challenge your conclusions Examine the application of your interpretive framework Assess your organization Peer Review: Improve Your Analytical Essay Student Essay Living (and Dying) Large, Alison Bizzul Project Ideas In Summary: Writing an Analytical Essay 8. Writing to Evaluate Genres in Conversation: Evaluative Writing Key Questions What is writing to evaluate? The Writer’s Role: Reviewer What kinds of documents are used to share evaluation? Product Reviews Booster Shot: How Well Do These Energy Drinks Work? Sam Eifling Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Booster Shot" Media Reviews Mary Tyler More, Erica Lies Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Mary Tyler More" Place Evaluations Bowery Dreams, Paul Goldberger Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Bowery Dreams" Progress Reports Education for All Global Monitoring Report, UNESCO Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Education for All Global Monitoring Report" Evaluative essays Emotional Correctness, Christina Hoff Somers and Sally Satel Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Emotional Correctness" How can I write an evaluative essay? Featured Writer: Dwight Haynes, An Evaluative Essay about Programs to Reduce College Drinking Find a conversation and listen in Explore your needs, interests, and concerns Working Together: Try It Out Loud Search the Web In Process: Searching the Web Narrow your focus by asking questions In Process: Focusing on a Subject Conduct your evaluation Define your criteria Identify evidence Make your judgments In Process: Making Judgments Prepare a draft State your overall judgment Present your evaluation Explain your criteria Support your judgments with evidence In Process: Using Evidence to Support Judgments Be fair Working Together: Ask Whether Your Judgments Are Fair Consider genre and design Frame your evaluation Review and improve your draft Review your criteria Reconsider your evidence Ensure your judgments are fair and reasonable Peer Review: Improve Your Evaluative Essay Student Essay Making Better Choices: Two Approaches to Reducing College Drinking, Dwight Haynes Project Ideas In Summary: Writing an Evaluative Essay 9. Writing to Solve Problems Genres in Conversation: Problem-Solving Writing Key Questions What is writing to solve problems? The Writer’s Role: Problem Solver What kinds of documents are used to solve problems? Correspondence RE: Unauthorized Monitoring of Employee Emails by SBA Managers, John F. Kerry and Frank R. Borchert Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Unauthorized Monitoring of Employee Emails by SBA Managers" Professional Articles Drug Testing Needs Improvement, Not Clearinghouse, Jami Jones Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Drug Testing Needs Improvement, Not Clearinghouse" Speeches Trees for Democracy, Wangari Maathai Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Trees for Democracy" Proposals Star Trek: Re-Boot the Universe, J. Michael Straczynski and Bryce Zabel Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Star Trek: Re-Boot the Universe" Problem-Solution Essays Easy Does It, Richard H. Thaler and Cass R. Sunstein Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Easy Does It" How can I write a problem-solving essay? Featured Writer: Jen Tillson, A Problem-Solving Essay about College Tuition Find a conversation and listen in Explore difficulties Working Together: Try It Out Loud Ask questions about promising subjects Conduct a survey Decide whether to conduct a survey Decide whom to survey Decide what to ask and how to ask it In Process: Developing a Survey Conduct your survey Analyze your results Develop a solution Define the problem In Process: Defining a Problem Consider potential solutions In Process: Developing a Solution Assess the practicality of your solution Prepare a draft Explain the problem Propose your solution Go into detail Provide support for your points In Process: Providing Support for Key Points Address promising alternative solutions Consider genre and design Frame your solution Review and improve your draft Reassess your problem definition Review the presentation of your solution Check the feasibility of your solution Consider objections and alternative solutions Peer Review: Improve Your Problem-Solving Essay Student Essay Death, Taxes, and College Tuition, Jennie Tillson Project Ideas In Summary: Writing a Problem-Solving Essay 10. Writing to Convince or Persuade Genres in Conversation: Argumentative Writing Key Questions What is writing to convince or persuade? The Writer’s Role: Advocate What kinds of documents are used to convince or persuade? Advertisements Above the Influence, White House Office of National Drug Control PolicyStarting a Conversation: Respond to "Above the Influence" Opinion Columns Show Us the Money, Cyrus Habib Starting a Conversation: Respond to "Show Us the Money" Letters to the Editor Response to "The Ethanol Scam," Bob Dineen Starting a Conversation: Respond to "An Urban Chic Straw Man" Blogs What America Owes Its "Illegals,"Barbara Ehrenreich Starting a Conversation: Respond to "What America Owes Its ‘Illegals’" Argumentative Essays In Praise of Chain Stores, Virginia Postrel Starting a Conversation: Respond to "In Praise of Chain Stores" How Can I Write an Argumentative Essay? Featured Writer: Donovan Mikrot, An Argumentative Essay about Digital Music Find a conversation and listen in Explore disagreements In Process: Generating Ideas about Conversations Working Together: Try It Out Loud Track online conversations In Process: Locating Sources Ask questions about promising issues Build your argument Define your overall claim Develop reasons to accept your overall claim Choose evidence to support your reasons In Process: Choosing Evidence Identify and consider opposing claims Working Together: Identify and Consider Opposing Claims Ensure the integrity of your argument Fallacies based on distraction Fallacies based on questionable assumptions Fallacies based on misrepresentation Fallacies based on careless reasoning Prepare a draft Make an argumentative claim Appeal to your readers Appeals to authority Appeals to emotion Appeals to principles, values, and beliefs Appeals to character Appeals to logic Address counterarguments Concede valid claims Refute widely held claims Ignore competing claims Consider genre and design Frame your argument Review and improve your draft Consider your overall claim Review your reasons, evidence, and appeals Examine your treatment of counterarguments Ensure the integrity of your argument Peer Review: Improve Your Argumentative Essay Student Essay Download This: Why Digital Rights Management Is a Bad Idea for Hollywood, Donovan Mikrot Project Ideas In Summary: Writing an Argumentative Essay Part Three: Working with Sources 11. Preparing to Use Sources in an Academic EssayKey Questions How should I focus my search for sources? Generate potential research questions Select and refine your question Reflect on your writing situation Refer to shared assumptions and existing conditions Narrow your scope Conduct preliminary searches How can I develop a search plan? Identify relevant types of sources Identify appropriate search tools and research methods Review your plan How can I keep track of my sources? Manage print sources Manage digital sources Create a working or annotated bibliography Working bibliographies Annotated bibliographies In Summary: Preparing to Use Sources 12. Locating Sources Key Questions How can I locate sources using electronic resources? Generate search terms and strategies Identify keywords and phrases Plan simple searches Plan advanced searches Search library catalogs Search databases Identify relevant databases Search within database fields Search the Web Identify relevant Web search sites Search media sites Use image search sites and directories Use audio search sites Use video search sites Keep track of your searches Checklist for recording search terms How can I locate sources using print resources? Discuss your search plan with a librarian Browse the library stacks Browse periodicals Check reference works Bibliographies Indexes Biographies Encyclopedias Handbooks Almanacs Atlases How can I gather information using field research? Choose your methods Interviews Observations Surveys Correspondence Attending public events Viewing or listening to broadcast media Enlist help Assess your information In Summary: Locating Sources 13. Taking NotesKey Questions How can I record my notes? What methods can I use to take notes? Quote directly Modify a direct quotation using an ellipsis Modify a direct quotation using brackets Modify a direct quotation using "sic" Checklist for quoting Paraphrase Checklist for paraphrasing Summarize Checklist for summarizing Compare sources and start planning your document In Summary: Taking Notes 14. Avoiding Plagiarism Key Questions What is plagiarism? Unintentional plagiarism Intentional plagiarism Plagiarism in group projects What are research ethics? How can I avoid plagiarism? Conduct a knowledge inventory Take notes carefully Attribute ideas appropriately Identify your sources Understand why writers plagiarize What should I do if I’m accused of plagiarism? In Summary: Avoiding Plagiarism Part Four: Crafting and Polishing Your Contribution 15. Developing a Thesis Statement Key Questions How can I choose a main point? Review Your Notes Consider Your Writing Situation How can I draft my thesis statement? Consider the type of document you will write Identify important ideas associated with your main point Draft alternatives Focus your thesis statement How can I support my thesis? Choose supporting points Select evidence Review and arrange your supporting points and evidence Labeling evidence Grouping Clustering Mapping In Summary: Developing a Thesis 16. Organizing and DraftingKey Questions How can I organize my document? Choose an appropriate organizational pattern Create an outline Create an informal outline Create a formal outline Use your outline to begin drafting How can I draft effective paragraphs? Focus on a central idea Follow an organizational pattern Use details to capture your readers’ attention Create transitions within and between paragraphs How can I draft my introduction? Frame your introduction Select an introductory strategy How can I draft my conclusion? Reinforce your points Select a concluding strategy In Summary: Organizing and Drafting 17. Using Sources EffectivelyKey Questions How can I use sources to accomplish my purposes as a writer? Introduce a point Contrast ideas Provide evidence Align yourself with an authority Define a concept, illustrate a process, or clarify a statement Set a mood Provide an example Amplify or qualify a point How can I integrate sources into my draft? Identify your sources Use signal phrases and in-text citations Provide a context Quote strategically Use partial, complete, and block quotations Modify quotations as appropriate Punctuate quotations correctly Paraphrase ideas, information, and arguments Summarize longer sources Summarize an entire source Summarize specific ideas and information from a source Summarize a group of sources Present numerical information Use images, audio, and video How can I ensure I’ve avoided plagiarism? Quote, paraphrase, and summarize accurately and appropriately Distinguish between your ideas and ideas in your sources Check for unattributed sources in your document In Summary: Using Sources Effectively 18. Designing Your Document Key Questions How can I use design effectively? Understand design principles Design for a purpose Design for your readers What design elements can I use? Fonts, line spacing, and alignment Page layout elements Color, shading, borders, and rules Illustrations What design conventions should I follow? Academic essays Checklist for Designing Academic Essays Multimodal essays Checklist for Designing Multimodal Essays Articles Checklist for Designing Articles Web sites Checklist for Designing Web sites In Summary: Designing Your Document 19. Writing with StyleKey Questions How can I begin to write with style? Write concisely Use active and passive voice effectively Adopt a consistent point of view Choose your words carefully How can I polish my style? Vary your sentence structure Create effective transitions Introduce the work of other authors effectively Avoid sexist language Consult a good handbook Read widely In Summary: Writing with Style 20. Revising and Editing Key Questions What should I focus on when I revise? Consider your writing situation Consider your presentation of ideas Consider your use and integration of source information Consider the structure and organization of your document Consider your choice of genre and your use of design Checklist for Revision What strategies can I use to revise? Save multiple drafts Highlight your main point, supporting points, and evidence Challenge your assumptions Scan, outline, and map your document Ask for feedback What should I focus on when I edit? Focus on accuracy Focus on consistency Focus on style Focus on spelling, grammar, and punctuation Checklist for Editing What strategies can I use to edit? Read carefully Mark and search your document Use spelling and grammar tools with caution Ask for feedback In Summary: Revising and Editing Part Five: Documenting Sources 21. The MLA Documentation System Key Questions How do I cite sources within the text of my document? How do I prepare the list of works cited? 22. The APA Documentation System Key Questions How do I cite sources within the text of my document? How do I prepare the list of works cited?