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The Bedford Introduction to Literature is a best-seller for a reason: It brings literature to life for students — helping to make them lifelong readers and better writers. Classic works drawn from many periods and cultures exist alongside a hefty representation of today’s authors, including women, writers of color, and voices that reflect the quirkiness and humor of modern life.
There is plenty of support for students, with a dozen chapters of critical reading and writing support, helpful sample close readings, writing assignments, and student papers. And, because everyone teaches and learns a little differently, there are lots of options for working with the literature, including in-depth chapters on major authors and case studies on individual works and themes that everyone can relate to.
This is a perfect introduction to Literature, especially for AP kids preparing for college level English studies, or for college kids who are only planning to take one literature course.
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Robert Francis, Catch A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Tossing Metaphors Together in "Catch" Elizabeth Bishop, The Fish Philip Larkin, A Study of Reading Habits Robert Morgan, Mountain Graveyard E. E. Cummings, l(a Anonymous, Western Wind Regina Barreca, Nighttime Fires SUGGESTIONS FOR APPROACHING POETRY Billy Collins, Introduction to Poetry ENCOUNTERING POETRY: IMAGES OF POETRY IN POPULAR CULTURE poster: Dorothy Parker, Unfortunate Coincidence photo: Carl Sandburg, Window cartoon: Roz Chast, The Love Song of J. Alfred Crew
photo: Tim Taylor, I shake the delicate apparatus poster: Eric Dunn and Mike Wigton, National Poetry Slam *photo: Kevin Fleming, Poetry Reading at Nuyorican Poets Café web screen: Poetry-portal.com web screen: Ted Kooser, American Life in Poetry poem in newspaper: David Allan Evans, Neighbors Poetry in Popular Forms Helen Farries, Magic of Love John Frederick Nims, Love Poem Bruce Springsteen, You’re Missing S. Pearl Sharp, It’s the Law: A Rap Poem perspective: Robert Francis, On "Hard" Poetry
Poems for Further Study *Peter Pereira, Anagrammer *Mary Oliver, The Poet with His Face in His Hands Lisa Parker, Snapping Beans Alberto Ríos, Seniors Alfred Lord Tennyson, Crossing the Bar Billy Collins, Marginalia *Christian Bok, Vowels 22. Writing about Poetry From Reading to Writing QUESTIONS FOR RESPONSIVE READING AND WRITING
Elizabeth Bishop, Manners A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of Manners A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: Memory in Elizabeth Bishop’s "Manners" 23. Word Choice, Word Order, and Tone Word Choice Diction Denotations and Connotations Randall Jarrell, The Death of the Ball Turret Gunner Word Order Tone Judith Ortiz Cofer, Common Ground Colette Inez, Back When All Was Continuous Chuckles Kathryn Howd Machan, Hazel Tells LaVerne *SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Tone in Kathryn Howd Machan’s "Hazel Tells LaVerne" Martín Espada, Latin Night at the Pawnshop Paul Lawrence Dunbar, To a Captious Critic Diction and Tone in Four Love Poems Robert Herrick, To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time Andrew Marvell, To His Coy Mistress Ann Lauinger, Marvell Noir
Sharon Olds, Last Night Poems for Further Study Barbara Hamby, Ode to American English Thomas Hardy, The Convergence of the Twain David R. Slavitt, Titanic Peter Meinke, (Untitled)
Joanne Diaz, On My Father’s Loss of Hearing Sharon Olds, Sex without Love *Mary Oliver, Oxygen Cathy Song, The Youngest Daughter John Keats, Ode on a Grecian Urn Gwendolyn Brooks, We Real Cool *Joan Murray, We Old Dudes Alice Jones, The Larynx Louis Simpson, In the Suburbs
*Herbert Lomas, The Fly’s Poem about Emily A Note on Reading Translations Three Translations of a Poem by Sappho Sappho, Immortal Aphrodite of the broidered throne (translated by Henry T. Wharton) Sappho Beautiful-throned, immortal Aphrodite (translated by T. W. Higginson) Sappho, Prayer to my lady of Paphos (translated by Mary Barnard) Two Translations of a Poem by Pablo Neruda
Pablo Neruda, Verbo (original Spanish version)
Pablo Neruda, Verbo (translated by Ben Belitt)
Pablo Neruda, Verbo (translated by Kristin Linklater)
24. Images Poetry’s Appeal to the Senses Li Ho, A Beautiful Girl Combs Her Hair William Carlos Williams, Poem Jeanette Barnes, Battle-Piece Walt Whitman, Cavalry Crossing a Ford David Solway, Windsurfing Theodore Roethke, Root Cellar Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach Jimmy Santiago Baca, Green Chile Poems for Further Study Amy Lowell, The Pond
H. D. [Hilda Doolittle], Heat Linda Pastan, Pass/Fail *Ruth Fainlight, Crocuses
Mary Robinson, London’s Summer Morning William Blake, London *A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Imagery in William Blake’s "London" and Mary Robinson’s "London’s Summer Morning" Wilfred Owen, Dulce et Decorum Est *Marvin Bell, The Uniform Patricia Smith, What It’s Like to Be a Black Girl (for Those of You Who Aren’t) Rainer Maria Rilke, The Panther Jane Kenyon, The Blue Bowl *Donna Masini, Slowly Sally Croft, Home-Baked Bread John Keats, To Autumn *C.K. Williams, Shock Ezra Pound, In a Station of the Metro Cathy Song, The White Porch perspective: T. E. Hulme, On the Differences between Poetry and Prose 25. Figures of Speech William Shakespeare, From Macbeth (Act V, Scene 5) Simile and Metaphor Margaret Atwood, you fit into me Emily Dickinson, Presentiment—is that long Shadow—on the lawn— Anne Bradstreet, The Author to Her Book *Jay Rogoff, Death’s Theatre Other Figures Edmund Conti, Pragmatist Dylan Thomas, The Hand That Signed the Paper Janice Townley Moore, To a Wasp J. Patrick Lewis, The Unkindest Cut Poems for Further Study Gary Snyder, How Poetry Comes to Me *A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Metaphor in Gary Snyder’s "How Poetry Comes to Me"
Margaret Atwood, February William Carlos Williams, To Waken an Old Lady Ernest Slyman, Lightning Bugs *Peter Meinke, Unnatural Light Sylvia Plath, Mirror Judy Page Heitzman, The Schoolroom on the Second Floor of the Knitting Mill
William Wordsworth, London, 1802 Jim Stevens, Schizophrenia Walt Whitman, A Noiseless Patient Spider John Donne, A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning Linda Pastan, Marks *Kay Ryan, Hailstorm Ronald Wallace, Building an Outhouse Elaine Magarrell, The Joy of Cooking Ruth Fainlight, The Clarinettist 154 perspective: John R. Searle, Figuring Out Metaphors 26. Symbol, Allegory, and Irony Symbol Robert Frost, Acquainted with the Night Allegory Edgar Allan Poe, The Haunted Palace Irony Edwin Arlington Robinson, Richard Cory *A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Irony in Edwin Arlington Robinson’s "Richard Cory" Kenneth Fearing, AD E. E. Cummings, next to of course god america i Stephen Crane, A Man Said to the Universe Poems for Further Study Bob Hicok, Making it in Poetry
Jane Kenyon, Surprise Martín Espada, Bully *Kevin Pierce, Proof of Origin Carl Sandburg, Buttons Wallace Stevens, Anecdote of the Jar *May Swenson, All That Time
William Stafford, Traveling through the Dark Julio Marzán, Ethnic Poetry Mark Halliday, Graded Paper *Charles Simic, The Storm James Merrill, Casual Wear Henry Reed, Naming of Parts Rachel Hadas, The Compact *Bruce Weigl, Snowy Egret
Robert Browning, My Last Duchess William Blake, The Chimney Sweeper Walt Whitman, From Song of Myself
Gary Soto, Behind Grandma’s House perspective: Ezra Pound, On Symbols 27. Sounds Listening to Poetry Anonymous, Scarborough Fair John Updike, Player Piano May Swenson, A Nosty Fright Emily Dickinson, A Bird came down the Walk— *A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: Sound in Emily Dickinson’s "A Bird came down the Walk—" Galway Kinnell, Blackberry Eating Rhyme Richard Armour, Going to Extremes Robert Southey, From The Cataract of Lodore perspective: David Lenson, On the Contemporary Use of Rhyme Sound and Meaning Gerard Manley Hopkins, God’s Grandeur Poems for Further Study Thomas Lux, Onomatopoeia *Molly Peacock, Of Night
Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), Jabberwocky *Harryette Mullen, Blah-Blah William Heyen, The Trains John Donne, Song Alexander Pope, From An Essay on Criticism Haki R. Madhbuti, The B Network
*Andrew Hudgins, The Cow Paul Humphrey, Blow Robert Francis, The Pitcher Helen Chasin, The Word Plum *Richard Wakefield, The Bell Rope John Keats, Ode to a Nightingale Howard Nemerov, Because you Asked Me about the Line Between Prose and Poetry 28. Patterns of Rhythm Some Principles of Meter Walt Whitman, From Song of the Open Road William Wordsworth, My Heart Leaps Up SUGGESTIONS FOR SCANNING A POEM Timothy Steele, Waiting for the Storm *A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Rhythm of Anticipation in Timothy Steele’s "Waiting for the Storm" William Butler Yeats, That the Night Come Poems for Further Study *Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Break, Break, Break Alice Jones, The Foot A. E. Houseman, When I was one-and-twenty
Rita Dove, Fox Trot Fridays Rachel Hadas, The Red Hat Robert Herrick, Delight in Disorder Ben Johnson, Still to Be Neat *Sonia Sanchez, Summer Words of a Sistuh Addict William Blake, The Lamb William Blake, The Tyger Carl Sandburg, Chicago *Mark Doty, Tunnel Music *Mark Turpin, Sledgehammer’s Song
Alfred, Lord Tennyson, The Charge of the Light Brigade Theodore Roethke, My Papa’s Waltz *Thylia Moss, Tornados *Floyd Skloot, Winter Solstice perspective: Louise Bogan, On Formal Poetry 29. Poetic Forms Some Common Poetic Forms A. E. Houseman, Loveliest of trees, the cherry now Robert Herrick, Upon Julia’s Clothes Sonnet John Keats, On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer William Wordsworth, The World Is Too Much with Us William Shakespeare, Shall I compare thee to a summer’s day? William Shakespeare, My mistress’ eyes are nothing like the sun Edna St. Vincent Millay, I will put Chaos into fourteen lines *A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Fixed Form in Edna St. Vincent Millay’s "I will put Chaos into fourteen lines" Molly Peacock, Desire Mark Jarman, Unholy Sonnet *X.J. Kennedy, The Purpose of Time is to Prevent Everything from Happening at Once Villanelle Dylan Thomas, Do not go gentle into that good night
Wendy Cope, Lonely Hearts Sestina Algernon Charles Swinburne, Sestina Florence Cassen Mayers, All-American Sestina Epigram Samuel Taylor Coleridge, What Is an Epigram? A. R. Ammons, Coward David McCord, Epitaph on a Waiter Paul Lawrence Dunbar, Theology Limerick Anonymous, There was a young lady named Bright Laurence Perrine, The limerick’s never averse Keith Casto, She Don’t Bop Haiku Matsuo Basho, Under cherry trees Carolyn Kizer, After Basho Sonia Sanchez, c’mon man hold me Elegy
Theodore Roethke, Elegy for Jane Andrew Hudgins, Elegy for My Father, Who Is Not Dead *Brendan Galvin, An Evel Knievel Elegy Ode Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ode to the West Wind *Baron Wormser, Labor
Parody Blanche Farley, The Lover Not Taken X. J. Kennedy, A Visit from St. Sigmund Picture Poem Michael McFee, In Medias Res Perspective Elaine Mitchell, Form 30. Open Form E. E. Cummings, in Just- Walt Whitman, From I Sing the Body Electric perspective: Walt Whitman, On Rhyme and Meter *A SAMPLE STUDENT RESPONSE: The Power of Walt Whitman’s Open Form Poem "I Sing the Body Electric" Richard Hass, A Story about the Body Richard Hague, Directions for Resisting the SAT
Galway Kinnell, After Making Love We Hear Footsteps Kelly Cherry, Alzheimer’s William Carlos Williams, The Red Wheelbarrow *Natasha Tretheway, On Captivity
Gary Gildner, First Practice Marilyn Nelson Waniek, Emily Dickinson’s Defunct *Jeffrey Harrison, The Names of Things Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage Julio Marzán, The Translator at the Reception for Latin American Writers *Todd Boss, Advance
Robert Morgan, Overalls *Louise Glück, March *Linda Pastan, To a Daughter Leaving Home
Anonymous, The Frog Tato Laviera, AmeRícan Peter Meinke, The ABC of Aerobics *Sandra M. Gilbert, Chairlift *Mary Stewart Hammond, The Big Fish Story Found Poem Donald Justice, Order in the Streets 31. Combining the Elements of Poetry: A Writing Process The Elements Together Mapping the Poem John Donne, Death Be Not Proud Asking Questions about the Elements A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Version of Death Be Not Proud A SAMPLE FIRST RESPONSE Organizing Your Thoughts A SAMPLE INFORMAL OUTLINE The Elements and Theme A SAMPLE EXPLICATION: The Use of Conventional Metaphors for Death in John Donne’s "Death Be Not Proud" APPROACHES TO POETRY 32. A Study of Emily Dickinson A Brief Biography Photo: Emily Dickinson, age 16 Silhouette: Emily Dickinson, age 14 Photo: Emily Dickinson, unauthenticated image Photo: Edward Dickinson Letter and Cartoon: Emily Dickinson to William Cowper Dickinson Photo: Susan Gilbert Dickinson Letter and Cartoon: Emily Dickinson to Susan Gilbert Dickinson An Introduction to Her Work Emily Dickinson, If I can stop one Heart from breaking Emily Dickinson, If I shouldn’t be alive Emily Dickinson, The Thought beneath so slight a film— Emily Dickinson, To make a prairie it takes a clover and one bee Chronology Emily Dickinson, Success is counted sweetest *Emily Dickinson, Some things that fly there be Emily Dickinson, Water, is taught by thirst Emily Dickinson, Safe in their Alabaster Chambers—(1859 version) Emily Dickinson, Safe in their Alabaster Chambers—(1861 version) Emily Dickinson, Portraits are to daily faces Emily Dickinson, Some keep the Sabbath going to Church— Emily Dickinson, "Heaven"—is what I cannot reach!
Emily Dickinson, "Hope" is the thing with feathers *Emily Dickinson, The Robin’s my Criterion for Tune— Emily Dickinson, I like a look of Agony Emily Dickinson, Wild Nights—Wild Nights!
Emily Dickinson, What Soft—Cherubic Creatures— Facsimile: Manuscript Page of "What Soft—Cherubic Creatures--" Emily Dickinson, The Soul selects her own Society— Emily Dickinson, Much Madness is divinest Sense— Emily Dickinson, I dwell in Possibility— *Emily Dickinson, They dropped like Flakes— Emily Dickinson, After great pain, a formal feeling comes— *Emily Dickinson, Pain—has an Element of Blank— *Emily Dickinson, The Morning after Woe Emily Dickinson, I heard a Fly buzz—when I died— Emily Dickinson, One need not be a Chamber—to be Haunted— Emily Dickinson, Because I could not stop for Death— Emily Dickinson, I felt a Cleaving in my Mind— Emily Dickinson, A Light exists in Spring
Emily Dickinson, O Sumptuous moment Emily Dickinson, The Bustle in a House Emily Dickinson, Tell all the Truth but tell it slant—
Emily Dickinson, There is no Frigate like a Book
*Emily Dickinson, Fame is the one that does not stay— Perspectives on Emily Dickinson Emily Dickinson, A Description of Herself Thomas Wentworth Higginson, On Meeting Dickinson for the First Time Mabel Loomis Todd, The Character of Amherst
Richard Wilbur, On Dickinson’s Sense of Privation Sandra M. Gilbert and Susan Gubar, On Dickinson’s White Dress Cynthia Griffin Wolff, On the Many Voices in Dickinson’s Poetry Paula Bennett, On "I heard a Fly buzz—when I died—" Martha Nell Smith, On "Because I could not stop for Death—" Ronald Wallace, Miss Goff Two Complementary Critical Readings Charles R. Anderson, Eroticism in "Wild Nights—Wild Nights!" David S. Reynolds, Popular Literature and "Wild Nights—Wild Nights!" QUESTIONS FOR WRITING ABOUT AN AUTHOR IN DEPTH A SAMPLE IN-DEPTH STUDY Emily Dickinson, "Faith" is a fine invention Emily Dickinson, I know that He exists Emily Dickinson, I never saw a Moor— Emily Dickinson, Apparently with no surprise A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: Religious Faith in Four Poems by Emily Dickinson
Suggested Topics for Longer Papers 33. A Study of Robert Frost A Brief Biography Photo: Robert Frost, age 18 Photo: Robert Frost, age 47 Photo: Robert Frost at his writing desk An Introduction to His Work Robert Frost, The Road Not Taken Robert Frost, The Pasture Chronology Robert Frost, Mowing
Robert Frost, My November Guest
Robert Frost, Storm Fear Robert Frost, Mending Wall Robert Frost, Home Burial *Robert Frost, The Wood-pile Robert Frost, After Apple-Picking Robert Frost, Birches *Robert Frost, An Old Man’s Winter Night Robert Frost, "Out, Out—" *Robert Frost, The Oven Bird Robert Frost, Fire and Ice Robert Frost, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening Robert Frost, Nothing Gold Can Stay
Robert Frost, Unharvested Facsimile: Manuscript page of "Neither Out Far nor In Deep" Robert Frost, Neither Out Far nor In Deep Robert Frost, Design
Perspectives on Robert Frost Robert Frost, "In White," An Early Version of "Design" Robert Frost, On the Living Part of a Poem Amy Lowell, On Frost’s Realistic Technique Robert Frost, On the Figure a Poem Makes Robert Frost, On the Way to Read a Poem Herbert R. Coursen Jr. , A Parodic Interpretation of "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" Peter D. Poland, On "Neither Out Far nor In Deep" Derek Walcott, The Road Taken Two Complementary Critical Readings Richard Poirier, On Emotional Suffocation in "Home Burial" Katherine Kearns, On the Symbolic Setting of "Home Burial" Suggested Topics for Longer Papers 34. A Study of Langston Hughes Image: Langston Hughes Stamp *Photo: Couples Dancing in a Harlem Nightclub A Brief Biography Photo: Harlem Renaissance couple Photo: The Lafayette Theatre Photo: Langston Hughes at the McCarthy Hearings Langston Hughes, The Negro Speaks of Rivers An Introduction to His Work Langston Hughes, I, Too Chronology Langston Hughes, Negro Langston Hughes, Danse Africaine Langston Hughes, Jazzonia Langston Hughes, Dream Variations Langston Hughes, The Weary Blues Langston Hughes, Cross Langston Hughes, Formula
Langston Hughes, Esthete in Harlem Langston Hughes, Lenox Avenue: Midnight Langston Hughes, Song for a Dark Girl Langston Hughes, Red Silk Stockings Langston Hughes, Rent-Party Shout: For a Lady Dancer
Langston Hughes, Ballad of the Landlord *Langston Hughes, Ku Klux *Langston Hughes, 50-50 *Langston Hughes, Harlem Sweeties
Langston Hughes, 125th Street Langston Hughes, Dream Boogie
Langston Hughes, Harlem *Langston Hughes, Motto Langston Hughes, Un-American Investigators Langston Hughes, Old Walt Facsimile: manuscript page of "Old Walt" *Langston Hughes, High to Low Langston Hughes, Dinner Guest: Me Langston Hughes, Frederick Douglass: 1817–1895 Perspectives on Langston Hughes Langston Hughes, On Harlem Rent Parties James E. Emanuel, Hughes’s Attitudes toward Religion Richard K. Barksdale, On Censoring "Ballad of the Landlord"
Karen Jackson Ford, Hughes’ Aesthetics of Simplicity David Chinitz, The Romanticization of Africa in the 1920s Two Complementary Critical Readings
David Rampersad, On the Persona in "The Negro Speaks of Rivers"
Adrian Oktenberg, Memory in "The Negro Speaks of Rivers" Suggested Topics for Longer Papers 35. *A Study of Billy Collins: The Author Reflects on Five Poems *Photo: Billy Collins *A Brief Biography and Overview of Collins’s Work *Photo: Billy Collins, first day as a student at St. Joan of Arc School *Photo: Billy Collins, first day as a student at College of the Holy Cross *Photo: Billy Collins, yearbook photo *Photo: Billy Collins, with cigarette *Photo: Billy Collins, with dog *Photo: Billy Collins in his office *A Chronology *Book Cover: Questions About Angels *Book Cover: The Art of Drowning *Book Cover: Nine Horses *Book Cover: The Trouble with Poetry * "How Do Poems Travel?": An Introduction by Billy Collins *Billy Collins, Osso Buco *Billy Collins, On Writing "Osso Buco" *Billy Collins, Nostalgia *Billy Collins, On Writing "Nostalgia" *Billy Collins, Questions About Angels *Billy Collins, On Writing "Questions About Angels" *Billy Collins, Litany *Billy Collins, On Writing "Litany" *Billy Collins, Building with Its Face Blown Off *Perspective: On "Building with Its Face Blown Off": Michael Meyer Interviews Billy Collins *Facsimiles: Three Manuscript Pages *Photo: Billy Collins Action Poetry Web site *Photo: Poetry 180 Web site 36. A Study of Julia Alvarez: Five Poems Photo: Julia Alvarez A Brief Biography Book Cover: A Cafecito Story Photo: Julia Alvarez and students at Alta Gracia An Introduction to Her Work Chronology
Julia Alvarez, On Writing "Queens, 1963"
Passport Photo: Julia Alvarez, age 10 Julia Alvarez, Queens, 1963 photo: Queens Civil Rights Demonstration, 1963
perspective: Marny Requa, From an Interview with Julia Alvarez Julia Alvarez, On Writing "Housekeeping Cages" and Her Housekeeping Poems Julia Alvarez, Housekeeping Cages Julia Alvarez, On Writing "Dusting"
Julia Alvarez, Dusting
Julia Alvarez, On Writing "Ironing Their Clothes"
Julia Alvarez, Ironing Their Clothes Julia Alvarez, On Writing "Sometimes the Words Are So Close" (From the "33" Sonnet Sequence) Julia Alvarez, Sometimes the Words Are So Close Drafts of "Sometimes the Words Are So Close": A Poet’s Writing Process Facsimiles: Four Draft Manuscript Pages Photo: Library Way Bronze Plaque of "Sometimes the Words Are So Close"
Julia Alvarez, On Writing "First Muse" Julia Alvarez, First Muse Image: Chiquita Banana
perspective: Kelli Lyon Johnson, Mapping an Identity 37. A Critical Case Study: T. S. Eliot’s "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Photo: T.S. Eliot, age 18 A Brief Biography Painting: T.S. Eliot, by Wyndham Lewis Photo: T.S. Eliot as Prufrock T. S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock Perspectives on T. S. Eliot Elisabeth Schneider, Hints of Eliot in Prufrock Barbara Everett, The Problem of Tone in Prufrock Michael L. Baumann, The "Overwhelming Question" for Prufrock Frederik L. Rusch, Society and Character in "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Robert Sward, A Personal Analysis of "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
38. A Thematic Case Study: Love and Longing Christopher Marlowe, The Passionate Shepherd to His Love William Shakespeare, Not marble, nor the gilded monuments Anne Bradstreet, To My Dear and Loving Husband Elizabeth Barrett Browning, How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Count The Ways Edna St. Vincent Millay, Recuerdo E. E. Cummings, since feeling is first Mark Doty, The Embrace Joan Murray, Play by Play Billie Bolton, Memorandum
* Michael Ryan, Bunny 39. A Thematic Case Study: Humor and Satire Fleur Adcock, The Video
John Ciardi, Suburban
Daisy Fried, Wit’s End
Ronald Wallace, In a Rut
Howard Nemerov, Walking the Dog
Linda Pastan, Jump Cabling Peter Schmitt, Friends with Numbers
Martín Espada, The Community College Revises its Curriculum in Response to
Changing Demographics *Denise Duhamel, Language Police Report
M. Carl Holman, Mr. Z
Gary Soto, Mexicans Begin Jogging
Bob Hicok, Spam Leaves an Aftertaste Thomas Lux, Commercial Leech Farming Today *Lee Upton, Dyserotica Anthony Hecht, The Dover Bitch
*X.J. Kennedy, On a Young Man’s Remaining an Undergraduate for Twelve Years
40. A Thematic Case Study: Milestones *Allen Braden, Sweethearts *Baron Wormser, Shoplifting *Jan Beatty, My Father Teaches Me To Dream *Marilyn Nelson, How I Discovered Poetry *Charles Simic, In the Library *Trevor West Knapp, Touch Sharon Olds, Rite of Passage *Sandra M. Gilbert, How We Didn’t Tell Her *Anne Carson, Father’s Old Blue Cardigan *Barbara Crooker, Listening to Her Practice: My Middle Daughter, on the Edge of Adolescence, Learns to Play the Saxophone Luisa Lopez, Junior Year Abroad Yusef Komunyakaa, Slam, Dunk, & Hook Suggested Topics for Longer Papers A Thematic Case Study: Crossing Boundaries Transcendence and Borders Phillis Wheatley, On Being Brought from Africa to America Diagram: An 18th Century Slave Ship
Advertisement: A 1784 Slave Auction Poster Identity and Borders Pat Mora, Legal Alien Image: Jacalyn López Garcia, I Just Wanted to be Me Immigration and Borders
Sandra M. Gilbert, Mafioso
photo: Baggage Examined Here, Ellis Island Expectations and Borders Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Indian Movie, New Jersey
Soundtrack cover: Rawal Films, Ladki Pasano Hai (I Like this Girl) Beauty and Borders Janice Mirikitani, Recipe photo: Chiaki Tsukumo, Girl and Licca Doll Freedom and Borders Thomas Lynch, Liberty
photo: Alex MacLean, Somerville, Massachusetts Suggested Topics for Longer Papers 41. A Thematic Case Study: The Natural World *Tom Disch, Birdsong Interpreted *Jane Hirschfield, Happiness *Leslie Marmon Silko, Love Poem *Margaret Atwood, A Holiday *Maxine Kumin, Though He Tarry *Gail White, Dead Armadillos *Dave Lucas, November *Walt McDonald, Coming Across It Alden Nowan, The Bull Moose *Robert B. Shaw, Wild Turkeys *Edward Hirsch, First Snowfall: Intimations *Paul Zimmer, What I Know about Owls Suggested Topics for Longer Papers
An Anthology of Poems 42. An Album of Contemporary Poems Michelle Boisseau, Self-Pity’s Closet *Eamon Grennan, Herringbone *Mary Stewart Hammond, High Ground Tony Hoagland, America
Rachel Loden, Locked Ward, Newtown, Connecticut Susan Minot, My Husband’s Back Robert Morgan, Fever Wit
Alberto Ríos, The Gathering Evening Cathy Song, A Poet in the House *C.K. Williams, The United States 43. An Album of World Literature Anna Akhmatova (Russia), Lot’s Wife Claribel Alegría (El Salvador), I Am Mirror Yehuda Amichai (Israel), Jerusalem, 1985 *Fazil Hüsnü Daglarca (Turkey), Dead
Mahmoud Darwish (Palestine) Identity Card *Marne L. Kilates (Philippines), Python in the Mall Taslima Nasrin (Bangladesh), At the Back of Progress
Pablo Neruda (Chile), The United Fruit Co. Octavio Paz (Mexico), The Street Yousif al-Sa’igh (Iraq), An Iraqi Evening Shu Ting (China), O Motherland, Dear Motherland Tomas Tranströmer (Sweden), April and Silence 42. A Collection of Poems Anonymous, Bonny Barbara Allan *Craig Arnold, Uncouplings William Blake, The Garden of Love William Blake, Infant Sorrow Anne Bradstreet, Before the Birth of One of Her Children *Elizabeth Barrett Browning, When Our Two Souls Stand Up Erect and Strong Robert Browning, Meeting at Night Robert Browning, Parting at Morning Robert Burns, A Red, Red Rose George Gordon, Lord Byron, She Walks in Beauty Lucille Clifton, this morning (for the girls of eastern high school) Samuel Taylor Coleridge, Kubla Khan: or, a Vision in a Dream *Wyn Cooper, Puritan Impulse E. E. Cummings, Buffalo Bill ’s John Donne, The Apparition John Donne, The Flea George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), In a London Drawingroom *Katie Ford, Ark *Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Queer People Thomas Hardy, Hap Thomas Hardy, In Time of "The Breaking of Nations"
Frances E. W. Harper, Learning to Read George Herbert, The Collar
Gerard Manley Hopkins, Hurrahing in Harvest Gerard Manley Hopkins, Pied Beauty Gerard Manley Hopkins, The Windhover A. E. Houseman, Is my team ploughing A. E. Houseman, To an Athlete Dying Young Julia Ward Howe, Battle-Hymn of the Republic *Andrew Hudgins, The Cadillac in the Attic Ben Jonson, On My First Son Ben Jonson, To Celia John Keats, To One Who has been Long in City Pent John Keats, When I have fears that I may cease to be John Keats, La Belle Dame sans Merci *John Keats, Written in Disgust of Vulgar Superstition Emma Lazarus, The New Colossus *Phillis Levin, May Day Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Snow-Flakes *Edna St. Vincent Millay, First Fig John Milton, On the Late Massacre in Piedmont John Milton, When I consider how my light is spent Sir Walter Raleigh, The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd *Alberto Rios, Northern Desert Towns in the Turn of the Old Century
Christina Georgina Rossetti, Some Ladies Dress in Muslin Full and White Christina Georgina Rossetti, In Progress
Christina Georgina Rossetti, The World Christina Georgina Rossetti, Promises Like Pie-Crust *Sigfried Sassoon, They William Shakespeare, That time of year thou mayst in me behold William Shakespeare, When forty winters shall besiege thy brow William Shakespeare, When, in disgrace with Fortune and men’s eyes Percy Bysshe Shelley, Ozymandias Sir Philip Sidney, Loving in Truth, and Fain in Verse My Love to Show Lydia Huntley Sigourney, Indian Names
Wallace Stevens, The Emperor of Ice-Cream Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Ulysses Alfred, Lord Tennyson, Tears, Idle Tears Richard Wakefield, In a Poetry Workshop Walt Whitman, I Heard You Solemn-Sweet Pipes of the Organ Walt Whitman, When I Heard the Learn’d Astronomer Walt Whitman, One’s-Self I Sing Miller Williams, Thinking about Bill, Dead of AIDS William Carlos Williams, Spring and All William Carlos Williams, This Is Just to Say William Wordsworth, A Slumber Did My Spirit Seal William Wordsworth, I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud
William Wordsworth, It Is a Beauteous Evening, Calm and Free William Wordsworth, The Solitary Reaper William Wordsworth, Mutability William Butler Yeats, The Second Coming William Butler Yeats, Leda and the Swan William Butler Yeats, Sailing to Byzantium William Butler Yeats, Crazy Jane Talks with the Bishop DRAMA The Study of Drama 43. Reading Drama photo: Arthur Miller *photo: Josefina Lopez Reading Drama Responsively photo: Susan Glaspell SUSAN GLASPELL, Tri?es A SAMPLE CLOSE READING: An Annotated Section of Tri?es PERSPECTIVE: SUSAN GLASPELL, From the Short Story Version of Tri?es Elements of Drama photo: Michael Hollinger MICHAEL HOLLINGER, Naked Lunch *photo: Sharon E. Cooper *SHARON E. COOPER, Mistaken Identity Drama in Popular Forms photo: Larry David LARRY DAVID, "The Pitch," a Seinfeld Episode PERSPECTIVE: GEOFFREY O’BRIEN, On Seinfeld as Sitcom Moneymaker 44. Writing about Drama *photo: Jane Anderson From Reading to Writing Questions for Responsive Reading and Writing Plays in Performance photo: Oedipus the King photo: Antigone photo: A Midsummer Night’s Dream photo: Hamlet photo: A Doll House *photo: Real Women Have Curves *photo: Doubt photo: Rodeo *photo: Fences *photo: Trying to Find Chinatown photo: Death of a Salesman *photo: No Child… photo: Playwriting 101 *photo: Wanda’s Visit A SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: The Feminist Evidence in Tri?es 45. A Study of Sophocles photo: Sophocles photo: Sophocles map: Map of Ancient Greece CHRONOLOGY Theatrical Conventions of Greek Drama drawing: Classical Greek theater Tragedy SOPHOCLES, Oedipus the King (Translated by Robert Fagles) SOPHOCLES, Antigone (Translated by Robert Fagles) PERSPECTIVES ON SOPHOCLES ARISTOTLE, On Tragic Character SIGMUND FREUD, On the Oedipus Complex SOPHOCLES, Another Translation of a Scene from Oedipus the King MURIEL RUKEYSER, On Oedipus the King DAVID WILES, On Oedipus the King as a Political Play JEAN ANOUILH, A Scene from Antigone (Translated by Lewis Galantière) MAURICE SAGOFF, A Humorous Distillation of Antigone TWO COMPLEMENTARY CRITICAL READINGS R. G. A. BUXTON, The Major Critical Issue in Antigone CYNTHIA P. GARDINER, The Function of the Chorus in Antigone Suggested Topics for Longer Papers 46. A Study of William Shakespeare photo: Laurence Olivier portrait: William Shakespeare portrait: William Shakespeare portrait, from the First Folio portrait: William Shakespeare, the "Chandos Portrait" image: Shakespeare’s signature CHRONOLOGY Shakespeare’s Theater drawing: The Globe Theatre The Range of Shakespeare’s Drama: History, Comedy, and Tragedy A Note on Reading Shakespeare WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, A Midsummer Night’s Dream WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark PERSPECTIVES ON SHAKESPEARE THE MAYOR OF LONDON (1597), Objections to the Elizabethan Theater LISA JARDINE, On Boy Actors in Female Roles SAMUEL JOHNSON, On Shakespeare’s Characters SIGMUND FREUD, On Repression in Hamlet JAN KOTT, On Producing Hamlet RUSSELL JACKSON, A Film Diary of the Shooting of Kenneth Branagh’s Hamlet LINDA BAMBER, Feminine Rebellion and Masculine Authority in A Midsummer Night’s Dream LOUIS ADRIAN MONTROSE, On Amazonian Mythology in A Midsummer Night’s Dream JAMES KINCAID, On the Value of Comedy in the Face of Tragedy TWO COMPLEMENTARY CRITICAL READINGS JOAN MONTGOMERY BYLES, Ophelia’s Desperation SANDRA K. FISCHER, Ophelia’s Mad Speeches Suggested Topics for Longer Papers ENCOUNTERING DRAMA: A VISUAL PORTFOLIO HAMLET IN POPULAR CULTURE AND PERFORMANCE painting: Hamlet and Horatio in the Cemetery, by Eugène Delacroix photo: Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet movie still: Ethan Hawke as Hamlet movie still: Laurence Olivier as Hamlet painting: Ophelia: Here is Rosemary, by William Gorman Wills cartoon: Ophelia, cartoon from The New Yorker, by Lee Lorenz movie still: Kate Winslet as Ophelia painting: The Death of Ophelia, by Eugène Delacroix 47. Modern Drama photo: T. S. Eliot Realism Naturalism Theatrical Conventions of Modern Drama photo: Henrik Ibsen HENRIK IBSEN, A Doll House (Translated by Rolf Fjelde) PERSPECTIVE: HENRIK IBSEN, Notes for A Doll House Beyond Realism 48. A Critical Case Study: Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll House photo: Henrik Ibsen PERSPECTIVES A Nineteenth-Century Husband’s Letter to His Wife BARRY WITHAM and JOHN LUTTERBIE, A Marxist Approach to A Doll House CAROL STRONGIN TUFTS, A Psychoanalytic Reading of Nora JOAN TEMPLETON, Is A Doll House a Feminist Text? Questions for Writing: Applying a Critical Strategy SAMPLE STUDENT PAPER: On the Other Side of the Slammed Door in A Doll House 49. A Thematic Case Study: An Album of Contemporary Humor and Satire *photo: Christopher Durang photo: Jane Anderson JANE ANDERSON, The Reprimand *CHRISTOPHER DURANG, Wanda’s Visit *photo: Christopher Durang DAVID IVES, Moby-Dude, Or: The Three-Minute Whale photo: David Ives JANE MARTIN, Rodeo photo: Rich Orloff RICH ORLOFF, Playwriting 101: The Rooftop Lesson A Collection of Plays 50. Plays for Further Reading photo: August Wilson photo: Arthur Miller photo: David Henry Hwang DAVID HENRY HWANG, Trying to Find Chinatown *photo: Josefina Lopez *JOSEFINA LOPEZ, Real Women Have Curves photo: Arthur Miller ARTHUR MILLER, Death of a Salesman PERSPECTIVES ARTHUR MILLER, Tragedy and the Common Man ARTHUR MILLER, On Biff and Willy Loman *JOHN PATRICK SHANLEY, Doubt *photo: John Patrick Shanley *NILAJA SUN, No Child… *photo: Nilaja Sun photo: August Wilson AUGUST WILSON, Fences PERSPECTIVE: DAVID SAVRAN, An Interview with August Wilson Critical Thinking and Writing 51. Critical Strategies for Reading photo: Ezra Pound photo: Margaret Atwood Critical Thinking The Literary Canon: Diversity and Controversy Formalist Strategies Biographical Strategies Psychological Strategies Historical Strategies Literary History Criticism Marxist Criticism New Historicist Criticism Cultural Criticism Gender Strategies Feminist Criticism Gay and Lesbian Criticism Mythological Strategies Reader-Response Strategies Deconstructionist Strategies 51. Reading and Writing photo: Dorothy Parker The Purpose and Value of Writing about Literature Reading the Work Closely Annotating the Text and Journal Note Taking Annotated Text Journal Note Choosing a Topic Developing a Thesis Arguing about Literature Questions for Arguing about Literature Organizing a Paper Writing a Draft Writing the Introduction and Conclusion Using Quotations Revising and Editing Questions for Writing: A Revision Checklist Manuscript Form Types of Writing Assignments Explication A SAMPLE STUDENT EXPLICATION: A Reading of Dickinson’s "There’s a certain Slant of light" EMILY DICKINSON, There’s a certain Slant of light Analysis A SAMPLE STUDENT ANALYSIS: "The A & P" as a State of Mind Comparison and Contrast A SAMPLE STUDENT COMPARISON: The Struggle for Women’s Self-De?nition in "Eveline" and A Doll House 52. The Literary Research Paper photo: Donald Hall Choosing a Topic Finding Sources Annotated List of References Electronic Sources Evaluating Sources and Taking Notes Developing a Thesis and Organizing the Paper Revising Documenting Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism The List of Works Cited Parenthetical References A SAMPLE STUDENT RESEARCH PAPER: How the Narrator Cultivates a Rose for Emily 53. Taking Essay Examinations photo: Cynthia Ozick Preparing for an Essay Exam Keep Up with the Reading Take Notes and Annotate the Text Anticipate Questions Types of Exams Closed-Book versus Open-Book Exams Essay Questions Strategies for Writing Essay Exams Glossary of Literary Terms Index of First Lines Index of Authors and Titles Index of Terms *new to this edition