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Annual Editions: Educational Psychology 12/13, Twenty-Seventh Edition
Unit 1: Perspectives on Teaching
1. Inspired Responses, Carol Frederick Steele, Educational Leadership, December 2010/January 2011
Ms. Steele equates effective teaching with inspired teaching and expands on four of the thirteen most important skills in the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. She helps us see how novice teaching develops into inspired teaching.
2. Reform: To What End?, Mike Rose, Educational Leadership, April 2010
Mr. Rose argues that educational reform efforts should concentrate on developing teacher expertise with professional development activities such as summer workshops with subject-matter experts and effective teachers. These workshops would energize teachers to consider effective teaching techniques and help them create learning-friendly environments with intellectual rigor, student responsibility for learning, and respect.
3. Embarking on Action Research, Catherine M. Brighton, Educational Leadership, February 2009
The author leads us through seven basic steps for conducting action research. She shows how teachers can conduct reflective, systematic inquiry to address problems they encounter while teaching.
4. Teaching with Awareness: The Hidden Effects of Trauma on Learning, Helen Collins Sitler, The Clearing House, January/February 2009
This pertinent article helps teachers understand the psychological effects of trauma on students and how they might mitigate those effects.
5. Supporting Adolescents Exposed to Disasters, Anne K. Jacobs, Eric Vernberg, and Stephanie J. Lee, The Prevention Researcher, September 2008
The authors present ways to prepare and support youth before, during, and after a major disaster. Online resources are also listed to meet the unique needs of students as they deal with the traumatic events.
Unit 2: Development
Part A. Childhood
6. Play and Social Interaction in Middle Childhood, Doris Bergen and Doris Pronin Fromberg, Phi Delta Kappan, February 2009
The authors discuss how play is valuable for children's cognitive, social, emotional, and physical development. They present ways in which teachers and parents can facilitate play that supports student growth.
7. It's All in the Game: Designing and Playing Board Games to Foster Communication and Social Skills, Kathleen M. Collins et al. Young Children, March 2011
The authors explain the many benefits to children creating their own board games to promote language and literacy development. This approach can also promote social skills while meeting learning standards.
8. Why We Should Not Cut P.E., Stewart G. Trost and Hans van der Mars, Educational Leadership, December 2009/January 2010
The authors discuss five studies that show that instructional time for physical education does not harm academic achievement and may help it. They also show that physical fitness and physical activity benefit the health of children, their academic performance and cognitive activity in general.
Part B. Adolescence
9. Adolescent Brain Development and Drugs, Ken C. Winters, and Amelia Arria, The Prevention Researcher, April 2011
The authors review the basics of how the adolescent brain develops and examine how brain development affects adolescent decision making about risky behavior. They also explore the vulnerability of the adolescent brain to drug use and implications for drug prevention and treatment.
10. Adolescent Decision Making: An Overview, Bonnie Halpern-Felsher, The Prevention Researcher, April 2009
Bonnie Halpern-Felsher explains a model of competent decision making and discusses factors that influence adolescents as they engage in the process. This model suggests the need to go beyond discussing risks and resisting peer pressure as we help teens make good decisions.
11. Peer Contexts for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Students: Reducing Stigma, Prejudice, and Discrimination, Stacey S. Horn, and Katherine E. Romeo, The Prevention Researcher, November 2010
This article explores how the attitudes and beliefs of peers can alienate LGBT youth. Ways in which schools can construct more supportive peer contexts for LGBT adolescents and to promote greater tolerance of diversity are discussed.
12. What Educators Need to Know about Bullying Behaviors, Sandra Graham, Phi Delta Kappan, September 2010
Ms. Graham dispels myths about the characteristics of bullies and victims. Internet resources are provided to help support adolescents who are targets of peer victimization.
13. The Bridge to Character, William Damon, Educational Leadership, February 2010
Mr. Damon argues that children's natural moral sense needs adult guidance in school. Issues of academic integrity or theft in high schools provide natural opportunities for teachers to engage adolescents in discussions of moral issues. He also advocates for character education that inspires students toward a sense of purpose.
Unit 3: Individual Differences among Learners
Part A. Exceptional Learning Needs
14. Improving the Way We Think about Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders, Kelley S. Regan, TEACHING Exceptional Children, May/June 2009
A teacher can create a positive learning environment by reflecting on his or her own mindset toward students with emotional and/or behavioral disorders. The article identifies ways to build trusting relationships with these and use creative resources to work with these students with special needs.
15. Sam Comes to School: Including Students with Autism in Your Classroom, Diana Friedlander, The Clearing House, January/February 2009
Diana Friedlander discusses the nature of autism and provides strategies that teachers can use to help typical students as well as students with special needs succeed in the inclusive classroom.
16. Working Memory Weaknesses in Students with ADHD: Implications for Instruction, Rhonda Martinussen and Ashley Major, Theory into Practice, July 2011
The authors explain the concept of working memory and show how working memory deficits can be implicated in some of the behaviors of children with both ADHD and executive function deficits (EF). They also offer suggestions for teachers to adapt instruction to reduce working memory demands for these students with special needs in inclusive classrooms.
Part B. Gifted and Talented
17. How Can Such a Smart Kid Not Get It?: Finding the Right Fit for Twice-Exceptional Students in Our Schools Nina Yssel, Mike Prater, and Deb Smith, Gifted Child Today, Winter 2010
The authors discuss the challenges faced by students who are both gifted and who have special needs such as Asperger's syndrome, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, or a learning disability.
18. The Relationship of Perfectionism to Affective Variables in Gifted and Highly Able Children, Mary M. Christopher and Jennifer Shewmaker, Gifted Child Today, Summer 2010
This study examines the relationship between perfectionism and emotional development of gifted students. It finds that some perfectionist tendencies are related to depression, but may not necessarily be anxiety provoking.
19. Social and Emotional Development of Gifted Children: Straight Talk, Tracy L. Cross, Gifted Child Today, Spring 2009
This article discusses eight issues that can help teachers and parents support the development of gifted students.
Part C. Diversity
20. Students Without Homes, Vicky S. Dill, Educational Leadership, November 2010
Ms. Dill discusses the rights of children who are at-risk because they are homeless. Indicators of homelessness, and ways in which teachers can support students who have become homeless, are presented.
21. Improving Schooling for Cultural Minorities: The Right Teaching Styles Can Make a Big Difference, Hani Morgan, Educational Horizons, Winter 2010
Multicultural education includes effectively teaching students from different cultures. Hani Morgan describes differing needs of students from a variety of cultures and suggests ways to avoid stereotyping students and teach in a culturally responsive manner.
22. The Myth of PINK & BLUE Brains, Lise Eliot, Educational Leadership, November 2010
Lise Eliot explains how small gender differences in infancy become magnified through parental interactions with their children. She argues that teachers, as well, need to be aware of how they treat boys and girls so they do not exacerbate gender stereotypes.
23. Gender Matters in Elementary Education: Research-based Strategies to Meet the Distinctive Learning Needs of Boys and Girls, Virginia Bonomo, Educational Horizons, Summer 2010
Ms. Bonomo discusses gender-based differences between boys and girls and how they learn. She suggests teaching strategies appropriate to each.
Unit 4: Learning and Instruction
Part A. Learning and Cognition
24. A Fresh Look at Brain-Based Education, Eric P. Jensen, Phi Delta Kappan, February 2008
Mr. Jensen ponders the question, "Can we make better-informed decisions about teaching based on what we have learned about the brain?" The author reviews developments in the neurosciences and their potential applications to schools and classrooms and suggests research in the area of cognitive neuroscience may afford the best interdisciplinary understanding of the brain, the mind and education.
25. What Will Improve a Student's Memory?, Daniel T. Willingham, American Educator, Winter 2008Ð2009
In this selection from Mr. Willingham's column "Ask the Cognitive Psychologist," he summarizes three key principles about how human memory works and common myths or misconceptions about memory and suggests a number of applications to the classroom, including a list of more common mnemonic devices and how they work to increase students' memory of information.
26. Classroom Assessment and Grading to Assure Mastery, James P. Lalley and J. Ronald Gentile, Theory Into Practice, January 2009
In this article, the authors present the difference between mastery and expertise; as well as the importance of mastery with regard to initial learning, forgetting, and re-learning. They highlight the key components to be considered when designing a mastery learning environment and the important role of assessment to the process.
27. Backward Design: Targeting Depth of Understanding for All Learners, Amy Childre, Jennifer R. Sands, and Saundra Tanner Pope, Teaching Exceptional Children, May/June 2009
The authors argue that developing instruction that enables students to construct understanding (as opposed to knowledge) requires thoughtful planning and curriculum design. They present a step-by-step guide to backward design, including both elementary and high school examples reflecting the process and highlight the importance of this approach for inclusive classrooms.
Part B. Instructional Strategies
28. "To Find Yourself, Think for Yourself": Using Socratic Discussions in Inclusive Classrooms, Barbara Fink Chorzempa and Laurie Lapidus, Teaching Exceptional Children, January/February 2009
The authors provide a description of Socratic seminars and their usefulness in terms of developing students' ability to think independently, particularly as they relate to critically reading and analyzing literature. They highlight the importance of the classroom environment and foundational knowledge and skills as prerequisites to successful seminars; as well as the roles of the teacher and students during a whole class Socratic discussion.
29. Structuring the Talk: Ensuring Academic Conversations Matter, Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher, The Clearing House, January 2011
Ms. Frey and Mr. Fisher discuss how to provide appropriate structures and supports to engage in academic discussions across a variety of content areas. The article focuses on the importance of establishing purpose, using language frames and scaffolding (particularly for English Learners), and incorporating productive small group work.
30. Cheating Themselves Out of an Education: Assignments That Promote Higher-Order Thinking and Honesty in the Middle Grades, Nicole Zito and Patrick J. McQuillan, Middle School Journal, November 2010
In this article, the authors report findings from a small scale study that examined academic (dis)honesty in the context of a small private day school. They use goal theory to examine the academic context of the school and highlight providing students with inherently valuable and meaningful assignments is one way to decrease incidences of dishonesty because students appreciate that the system rewards them for understanding rather than performance.
31. Creative Teaching: Why It Matters and Where to Begin, Jennifer L. Rinkevich, The Clearing House, August 2011
Ms. Rinkevich reminds us that creativity is beneficial not only for student learning, but their development as well. She examines creativity in teaching and provides some simple strategies for teachers to foster creativity in their own practice.
32. What Happens When Eighth Graders Become the Teachers?, Stephanie Stecz, Teachers College Record, August 2009
In this article from a special issue on teacher research, Ms. Stecz, a teacher in the Chicago Public Schools, reports findings from an action research project she conducted in her classroom. In the project, she asked a group of eighth-grade students to work in small groups to develop and teach lessons about Japan to second-, third-, and fourth-grade classes over a 10-week period. She uses excerpts from a personal journal, quotes from student discussions, and comments on surveys to describe the process and reactions of the students involved in the project. Ms. Stecz discusses how students' ownership of the content changed, unexpected students emerged as leaders, and her own beliefs and approach to teaching were affected by the project.
Part C. Technology and The Internet
33. What Is Technology Education? A Review of the "Official Curriculum", Ryan A. Brown and Joshua W. Brown, The Clearing House, January 2010
The authors make an important distinction between "technology education" and "educational technology." They review and summarize Standards from the International Technology Education Association (ITEA) and provide suggestions for what technology education should look like, how it should be assessed, and why it is important.
34. Plagiarism in the Internet Age, Rebecca Moore Howard and Laura J. Davies, Educational Leadership, March 2009
The authors discuss dealing with plagiarism in the classroom, an issue made more complex by the Internet and accessibility of information online. They suggest that worthwhile attempts to prevent plagiarism at any grade level should include discussing values both broad and those specific to writing, guiding students in the process of online research, and teaching students how to critically read and summarize sources.
35. Transforming Education with Technology: A Conversation with Karen Cator, Marge Scherer, Educational Leadership, February 2011
In this article, Ms. Scherer has a conversation with the U.S. Department of Education Director of the Office of Educational Technology, Karen Cator. The conversation covers a range of topics from online learning experiences and inequities in access to technology to the national technology plan and the need for research.
36. Assessing Middle School Students' Knowledge of Conduct and Consequences and Their Behaviors Regarding the Use of Social Networking Sites, Stacey L. Kite, Robert Gable, and Lawrence Filippelli, The Clearing House, July 2010
In this article, the authors discuss findings from a survey study involving seventh and eighth graders. They asked students to fill out a questionnaire about their knowledge of appropriate behavior on social networking sites, bullying sites, and Internet use of social networking sites. The authors discuss the implications of students' responses for parents and teachers specifically with regard to cyberbullying and Internet predators.
Unit 5: Motivation and Classroom Management
Part A. Motivation and Engagement
37. The Perils and Promises of Praise, Carol S. Dweck, Educational Leadership, October 2007
In this article, Carol Dweck, well-known for her work on the impact of praise on students, summarizes research that examines the relationships among intelligence, student effort, teacher praise, and student motivation. She suggests that educators should move away from the belief that intellectual ability is fixed and adopt a "growth mind-set." Students also need to learn that intellectual development involves forming new connections through effort and learning. The article reports results of an investigation in which students were taught to think about their "brains as muscles that needed exercising," in addition to study skills, time management techniques, and memory strategies.
38. Should Learning Be Its Own Reward?, Daniel T. Willingham, American Educator, Winter 2007Ð2008
The author uses recent initiatives by several schools in several states to pay students for performance on high-stakes standardized tests as a way to examine the use of and impact of rewards on student learning. He summarizes the arguments against the use of rewards into three categories and then suggests ways teachers can appropriately use rewards while avoiding their potentially detrimental effects.
39. Beyond Content: How Teachers Manage Classrooms to Facilitate Intellectual Engagement for Disengaged Students, Deborah L. Schussler, Theory Into Practice, March 2009
Ms. Schussler describes how teachers in an alternative middle school for students with academic potential manage classrooms in such a way that students perceive they will have opportunities for success, there is flexibility in terms of how learning can occur, and they are respected as learners. She uses quotes from students to illustrate how academic challenge, academic support, authentic tasks, flexible instruction, and relevant and interesting material fostered intellectual engagement.
40. Regulation of Motivation: Contextual and Social Aspects, Christopher A. Wolters, Teachers College Record, February 2011
In this article, Mr. Wolters reviews what it means to be a self-regulated learner by specifically examining regulation of motivation. He discusses previous research that has focused on regulation of motivation across contexts and developmental levels and highlights this importance of social influences on the development of regulation of motivation. He concludes that regulation of motivation is a critical aspect of self-regulation and deserves further attention and greater examination.
Part B. Classroom Management
41. Middle School Students Talk about Social Forces in the Classroom, Kathleen Cushman and Laura Rogers, Middle School Journal, January 2008
In this article, Ms. Cushman and Ms. Rogers describe how the social world and uncertainty of adolescence affects students' perceptions of their academic abilities and how teachers sometimes unwittingly create conflict for students as they try to navigate their social and academic worlds. The authors use students' responses in small group interviews to illustrate what middle school students care about and their thoughts about what teachers do and do not do that impact their feelings and beliefs about school.
42. Classroom Management Strategies for Difficult Students: Promoting Change through Relationships, Mary Ellen Beaty-O'Ferrall, Alan Green, and Fred Hanna, The Middle School Journal, March 2010
In this article, the authors focus on classroom management as relationship building. They highlight the importance of classroom management and relationships, particularly for students during the middle grades, not only academically, but socially and emotionally as well. A number of well-supported strategies for building positive and effective relationships, including a special focus on multicultural connections, are provided that are applicable to any age or grade level of student.
43. From Ringmaster to Conductor: 10 Simple Techniques Can Turn an Unruly Class into a Productive One, Matthew A. Kraft, Phi Delta Kappan, April 2010
Mr. Kraft draws the distinction between classroom management (practices that provide the foundation for the classroom environment and structure) and behavior management (techniques that are used to address specific or individual situations and essential to a positive, safe learning environment). He provides a list of five specific strategies under each area that allow the teacher to foster a classroom environment similar to a "symphony of learners" rather than a "three-ring circus."
44. Behavior Basics: Quick Behavior Analysis and Implementation of Interventions for Classroom Teachers, Shanon S. Taylor, The Clearing House, August 2011
This article provides a brief, but thorough overview of how general education teachers can implement a behavior analysis in order to design basic interventions with students in their classrooms. An overview of behavior analysis and common intervention strategies are presented within the context of behavioral learning theory.
45. Calling All Frequent Flyers, Ross W. Greene, Educational Leadership, October 2010
Mr. Greene promotes a problem-solving and collaborative approach to addressing problem behaviors at the school/building rather than individual teacher/classroom level. He provides a review of how, when, and why students are challengingÑtaking the perspective that challenging behaviors arise when students don't have the skills and capacity to adapt to the demands placed upon them.
Unit 6: Assessment
Part A. Standards, Accountability and Standardized Testing
46. Building on the Common Core, David T. Conley, Educational Leadership, March 2011
In this article, the author discusses the release of the Common Core Standards in June 2010 and their implication for the classroom. Using his work at the Educational Policy Improvement Center during the last 10 years as a basis, Mr. Conley identifies key cognitive strategies necessary for post-secondary and career success and how they can be supported through the common core standards.
47. The Many Meanings of "Multiple Measures", Susan M. Brookhart, Educational Leadership, November 2009
Ms. Brookhart suggests that, "to use multiple measures appropriately, [educators must] start by understanding their purposes." She provides definitions of multiple measures from National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME), and standards for psychological testing written jointly by the American Educational Research Association (AERA), American Psychological Association (APA), and National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME). She explains the purpose of multiple measures in terms of enhancing validity, provides examples of three ways to combine multiple measures and concludes with a discussion of how multiple measures are used to inform classroom-level and school-or policy-level decisions.
48. Data-Driven Decision Making, Michael J. Donhost and Vincent A. Anfara, Jr., Middle School Journal, November 2010
In synthesizing the literature on data-driven decision making, the authors identify five essential phases that must be part of the process if school administrators and educators attempt to make sense of the overwhelming amounts of data they are required to collect as part of NCLB. The article also highlights two key gaps in the literature related to: (1) criticism by researchers of the use of accountability test data to drive school improvement strategies and (2) involving students in the decision making process.
49. Strategic Measures of Teacher Performance, Anthony Milanowski, Phi Delta Kappan, April 2011
In this article the topics of teacher evaluation and how best to measure teacher performance are addressed. Mr. Milanowski suggests three essential measurement systems of teacher practice to demonstrate competency, in combination with value-added measures of productivity as models that have the most promise.
Part B. Classroom Assessment
50. Using Self-Assessment to Chart Students' Paths, Margaret Heritage, Middle School Journal, May 2009
In this article, Ms. Heritage highlights the importance of learners taking control of their learning, which includes developing metacognitive skills. She suggests the developmental transitions that take place during middle school make it an ideal time for teachers to foster the development of these skills by incorporating self-assessment practices in their classrooms. The author also focuses on formative assessment and teacher feedback as essential components of the self-assessment process.
51. Peer Assessment, Keith J. Topping, Theory Into Practice, January 2009
An in-depth discussion of the use of peer assessment, including an example from a secondary English classroom is presented by the author. He identifies benefits of peer assessment, as well as concerns about implementation and issues associated with reliability and validity, concluding with several considerations when organizing peer assessment in the classroom.
52. Assessment-Driven Improvements in Middle School Students' Writing, Heidi Andrade et al., Middle School Journal, March 2009
The authors discuss their efforts to improve students' writing skills and scores on the English Language Arts (ELA) test in a school in New York State. The process focused on developing consistency across all classes and grade levels, by designing common rubrics, incorporating peer and self-assessment, examining the reliability and validity of the assessments, using assessments to plan instruction and ensuring students were able to transfer their learning to the test.
53. Students' Reactions to a "No Failure" Grading System and How They Informed Teacher Practice, Dick Corbett and Bruce Wilson, Theory Into Practice, Summer 2009
The authors describe the central ideas of a program implemented in several low-income middle schools to remove failure as an option for grading on assignments for students. In place of "Fs" for missing or incomplete assignments, teachers developed a variety of options students could choose from to demonstrate mastery of critical skills and knowledge. They use quotes from interviews wit