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UNDERSTANDING HUMAN COMMUNICATION IS UNDERSTANDINGCHANGE. For over three decades, this has been the best-selling text for the introduction to human communication course.Understanding Human Communicationis written with one goal in mind: to provide students with the insights and skills to succeed in our changing world. Ronald B. Adler, George Rodman, and new author Carrie Cropley Hutchinson place communication theory within the context of everyday skills and draw from the latest media, culture, and scholarship, creating a distinctive pedagogy that gives students the tools they need to master--and enjoy--this intriguing and relevant subject. NEW TO THE ELEVENTH EDITION * New part-opening "Case Studies"present real-life communication challenges on the job, in school, and in personal relationships. * A brand-new chapter, "The Changing World of Communication,"considers demographic and cultural influences and the ways in which technologies have created both new opportunities and challenges in our modern world. * This edition presents current research on many new topicsincluding how we perceive strangers differently in mediated and face-to-face communication, how linguistic labels reflect cultural identity, the differences between conflicts online and in person, and the ways in which gender influences styles of conflict. * New "@ Work" boxesdemonstrate how key concepts presented in the book can be applied in the workplace. * Part V: Public Communicationhas been streamlined and reorganized to give students a more efficient introduction to public speaking. Synthesizing material from previous editions, the new Chapter 11, "Preliminary Considerations," discusses choosing and developing a topic as well as managing communication apprehension. * A new Appendix, "Communicating for Career Success,"provides students with practical information on interviewing and networking. DISTINCTIVE FEATURES *Understanding Diversitysidebars address subjects such as managing identity during the process of "coming out," the potential for misunderstandings during translation, and how lessons from other cultures can enhance listening skills. * Understanding Communication Technologyboxes focus on topics related to mediated communication, including how social media can meet a variety of communication needs, the etiquette of revealing what one has learned about others online, the dangers of being overly connected via the internet, and the ethical principles for using and acknowledging information gleaned from the web. * Invitation to Insightsidebars offer readings that show how the elements of communication operate in contemporary society, including the risks of broadcasting personal information via "sexting," social standards for using profanity, and the limitations of free speech when civil listening is absent. * Critical Thinkingprobes encourage students to consider their own actions in light of concepts covered in the text. * Ethical Challengesinvite students to ponder contemporary ethical issues in communication, such as whether honesty is always the best policy, the acceptability of presenting multiple identities, the tension between allowing free speech and the acceptability of hateful language, and the challenge of dealing politely but effectively with obnoxious group members. * Cultural Idiomsappear in the margins of each chapter, helping non-native English speakers understand American colloquialisms while also showing more proficient speakers how supposedly everyday speech can be misunderstood by listeners from other cultures. SUPPORT PACKAGE * ClassMate,a nationally hosted online homework system, gives you the ability to manage digital content from this book and its supplements, to make assignments, to administer tests, and to track student progress. * Companion Website(www.oup.com/us/uhc11) with free resources for students and instructors * Student Success Manual(available free to students in a package) with summaries of key concepts from each chapter, and additional questions with full answers, giving students even more opportunities for practice * Instructor''s Manualwith a revised and expanded Test Bank * Instructor''s CD-ROM(includes the full computerized Test Bank) * Now Playing: Learning Communication Through Film * Two additional, optional chapters available(one on Mediated Communication and the other on Service Learning)
Ronald B. Adler is Professor of Communication Emeritus at Santa Barbara City College. He is coauthor of Interplay: The Process of Interpersonal Communication, Eleventh Edition (OUP, 2009), Looking Out, Looking In (2011), and Communicating at Work: Principles and Practices for Business and theProfessions (2011).
George Rodman is a professor in the Department of Television and Radio at Brooklyn College, City University of New York, where he founded the graduate media studies program. He is author of Mass Media in a Changing World, Fourth Edition (2011), Making Sense of Media (2001), and several books on public speaking.
Carrie Cropley Hutchinson is a professor in the Department of Communication at Santa Barbara City College, where she directs the Interpersonal Communication and Business Communication programs. She also teaches Intercultural Communication for the college's study abroad program. Professor Cropley is the author of Interpersonal Communication: Navigating Relationships in a Changing World (2010).
Table of Contents
Preface About the Authors PART I: FUNDAMENTALS OF COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 1: HUMAN COMMUNICATION: WHAT AND WHY Communication Defined Communication Is a Process Communication Is Symbolic Types of Communication Intrapersonal Communication Dyadic/Interpersonal Communication Small Group Communication Public Communication Mass Communication Functions of Communication Physical Needs Identity Needs Social Needs Practical Needs Modeling Communication A Linear Model A Transactional Model Communication Competence: What Makes an Effective Communicator? Communication Competence Defined Characteristics of Competent Communicators Clarifying Misconceptions About Communication Communication Does Not Always Require Complete Understanding Communication Will Not Solve All Problems Communication Isn't Always a Good Thing Meanings Rest in People, Not Words Communication Is Not Simple More Communication Isn't Always Better INVITATION TO INSIGHT: The Many Meanings of Communication UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: Social Media Meet Communication Needs UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: Call Centers and Culture @WORK: When More Communication Isn't Better: Declaring E-mail Bankruptcy CHAPTER 2: THE CHANGING WORLD OF COMMUNICATION Understanding Change Changing Technologies Changing Discipline Changing Demographics Communicating in a Diverse World Intercultural and Intergroup Communication Cultural Values and Norms Developing Intercultural Communication Competence Social Media in a Changing World Mediated Versus Face-to-Face Communication Mediated Communication in Society Communicating Competently with Social Media @WORK: Can You Be Too Connected? INVITATION TO INSIGHT: "Sexting" Surprise: Teens Face Child Porn Charges UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: The Etiquette of Internet "Stalking" CHAPTER 3: THE SELF, PERCEPTION, AND PERCEPTION Communication and the Self Self-Concept Defined Communication and Development of the Self Culture and the Self-Concept The Self-Concept and Communication with Others The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Communication Perceiving Others Steps in the Perception Process Narratives, Perception, and Communication Common Perceptual Tendencies Perception in Mediated Communication Perception and Culture Empathy, Perception, and Communication Communication and Identity Management Public and Private Selves Characteristics of Identity Management Why Manage Identities? Identity Management in Mediated Communication Identity Management and Honesty UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: Managing Identity and Coming Out @WORK: Identity Management in the Workplace PART II: COMMUNICATION ELEMENTS CHAPTER 4: LANGUAGE The Nature of Language Language Is Symbolic Meanings Are in People, Not Words Language Is Rule Governed The Power of Language Language Shapes Attitudes Language Reflects Attitudes Troublesome Language The Language of Misunderstandings Disruptive Language Evasive Language Gender and Language Content Reasons for Communicating Conversational Style Nongender Variables Culture and Language Verbal Communication Styles Language and Worldview INVITATION TO INSIGHT: What the *@#$!? @WORK: What's in a Name? UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: Lost in Translation CHAPTER 5: LISTENING Misconceptions About Listening Listening and Hearing Are Not the Same Thing Listening Is Not a Natural Process All Listeners Do Not Receive the Same Message Overcoming Challenges to Effective Listening Mindful Listening Requires Effort Faulty Listening Behaviors Reasons for Poor Listening Personal Listening Styles Content-Oriented People-Oriented Action-Oriented Time-Oriented Informational Listening Don't Argue or Judge Prematurely Separate the Message from the Speaker Search for Value Look for Key Ideas Ask Questions Paraphrase Take Notes Critical Listening Listen for Information Before Evaluating Evaluate the Speaker's Credibility Examine the Speaker's Evidence and Reasoning Examine Emotional Appeals Listening as Social Support Social Support and Mediated Communication Gender and Social Support Types of Supportive Responses When and How to Help @WORK: Multitasking: A Recipe for Inattention INVITATION TO INSIGHT: What Good Is Free Speech if No One Listens? UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: Council: Reviving the Art of Listening CHAPTER 6: NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Characteristics of Nonverbal Communication Nonverbal Behavior Has Communicative Value Nonverbal Communication Is Primarily Relational Nonverbal Communication Is Ambiguous Nonverbal Communication Is Different from Verbal Communication Nonverbal Skills Are Important Influences on Nonverbal Communication Culture Gender Functions of Nonverbal Communication Repeating Substituting Complementing Accenting Regulating Contradicting Deceiving Types of Nonverbal Communication Body Movements Voice Appearance Touch Space Environment Time UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: Nonverbal Learning Disorder UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: Expressiveness in Online Communication @WORK: Touch and Career Success UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: Doing Business Across Cultures PART III: INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 7: UNDERSTANDING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Why We Form Relationships Appearance Similarity Complementarity Reciprocal Attraction Competence Disclosure Proximity Rewards Characteristics of Interpersonal Communication What Makes Communication Interpersonal? Interpersonal Communication in Mediated Relationships Content and Relational Messages Metacommunication Communication over the Relational Life Span A Developmental Perspective A Dialectical Perspective Intimacy in Interpersonal Relationships Dimensions of Intimacy Male and Female Intimacy Styles Cultural Influences on Intimacy Self-Disclosure in Interpersonal Relationships Models of Self-Disclosure Characteristics of Effective Self-Disclosure Guidelines for Appropriate Self-Disclosure Alternatives to Self-Disclosure UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: To End a Romance, Just Press "Send": Instant Messaging Altering the Way We Love INVITATION TO INSIGHT: Is It Ever Right to Lie? @WORK: Social Capital: Personal Relationships and Career Advancement CHAPTER 8: IMPROVING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Communication Climates in Interpersonal Relationships Confirming and Disconfirming Messages How Communication Climates Develop Creating Positive Communication Climates Managing Interpersonal Conflict The Nature of Conflict Styles of Expressing Conflict Characteristics of an Assertive Message Gender and Conflict Style Conflict in Mediated Communication Cultural Influences on Conflict Methods for Conflict Resolution Steps in Win-Win Problem Solving UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: Can You Hear Me Now? INVITATION TO INSIGHT: A Comparison of Dialogue and Debate @WORK: Dealing with Sexual Harassment PART IV: COMMUNICATION IN GROUPS CHAPTER 9: COMMUNICATING IN GROUPS The Nature of Groups What Is a Group? Virtual and Face-to-Face Groups Goals of Groups and Their Members Individual Goals Group Goals Characteristics of Groups Rules and Norms Roles Patterns of Interaction Decision-Making Methods Cultural Influences on Group Communication Individualism Versus Collectivism Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance Task Versus Social Orientation Short- Versus Long-Term Orientation Leadership and Power in Groups Power in Groups What Makes Leaders Effective? INVITATION TO INSIGHT: The Power of Small Groups @WORK: What Makes a Group a Team? UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: Baseball in Japan and the USA CHAPTER 10:SOLVING PROBLEMS IN GROUPS Problem Solving in Groups: When and Why Advantages of Group Problem Solving When to Use Groups for Problem Solving Group Problem-Solving Strategies and Formats Problem-Solving Formats Solving Problems in Virtual Groups Approaches and Stages in Problem Solving A Structured Problem-Solving Approach Developmental Stages in Problem-Solving Groups Maintaining Positive Relationships Basic Skills Building Cohesiveness Overcoming Dangers in Group Discussion Information Underload and Overload Unequal Participation Pressure to Conform INVITATION TO INSIGHT: Once Upon a September Day @WORK: Setting Up a Virtual Group PART V: PUBLIC COMMUNICATION CHAPTER 11: PREPARING SPEECHES Getting Started Choosing Your Topic?? Defining Your Purpose Writing a Purpose Statement Stating Your Thesis Analyzing the Speaking Situation The Listener: Audience Analysis The Occasion Gathering Information Web Research Library Research? Interviewing? Survey Research? Managing Communication Apprehension? Facilitative and Debilitative Communication Apprehension? Sources of Debilitative Communication Apprehension Overcoming Debilitative Communication Apprehension ?? Choosing a Type of Delivery? Extemporaneous? Impromptu? Manuscript? Memorized? Practicing the Speech Guidelines for Delivery? Visual Aspects of Delivery Auditory Aspects of Delivery @WORK: Sample Analysis of a Speaking Situation UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: A Compendium of American Dialects CHAPTER 12: ORGANIZATION AND SUPPORT Structuring Your Speech Your Working Outline Your Formal Outline Your Speaking Notes Principles of Outlining Standard Symbols Standard Format The Rule of Division The Rule of Parallel Wording Organizing Your Outline into a Logical Pattern Time Patterns Space Patterns Topic Patterns Problem-Solution Patterns Cause-Effect Patterns Using Transitions Beginning and Ending the Speech The Introduction The Conclusion Supporting Material Functions of Supporting Material Types of Supporting Material Style of Support: Narration and Citation UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: Nontraditional Patterns of Organization @WORK: Organizing Business Presentations UNDERSTANDING COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: Plagiarism in a Digital Age CHAPTER 13: INFORMATIVE SPEAKING Types of Informative Speaking By Content By Purpose Informative Versus Persuasive Topics An Informative Topic Tends to Be Noncontroversial The Informative Speaker Does Not Intend to Change Audience Attitudes Techniques of Informative Speaking Create Information Hunger Make it Easy to Listen Use Clear, Simple Language Use a Clear Organization and Structure Use Supporting Material Effectively Emphasize Important Points Generate Audience Involvement Using Visual Aids Types of Visual Aids Media for the Presentation of Visual Aids Rules for Using Visual Aids Using Power Point UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: How Culture Affects Information @WORK: The Pros and Cons of PowerPoint CHAPTER 14: PERSUASIVE SPEAKING Characteristics of Persuasion Persuasion Is Not Coercive Persuasion Is Usually Incremental Persuasion Is Interactive Persuasion Can Be Ethical Categorizing Types of Persuasion By Types of Proposition By Desired Outcome By Directness of Approach Creating the Persuasive Message Set a Clear, Persuasive Purpose Structure the Message Carefully Use Solid Evidence Avoid Fallacies Adapting to the Audience Establish Common Ground Organize According to the Expected Response Neutralize Potential Hostility Building Credibility as a Speaker Competence Character Charisma UNDERSTANDING DIVERSITY: Cultural Differences in Persuasion @WORK: Persuasion Skills in the World of Sales APPENDIX: COMMUNICATING FOR CAREER SUCCESS Employment Strategies The Selection Interview Communicating for Career Advancement Notes Glossary Credits Index