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This full-color, modern physical chemistry reference offers compelling applications and arresting illustrations that capture readers'attention and demonstrate the dynamic nature of the subject. The authors focus on core topics of physical chemistry, presented within a modern framework of applications. Modern applications are drawn from biology, environmental science, and material science. Spectroscopy applications are introduced early in concert with theory; for example, IR and rotational spectroscopy are discussed immediately after the harmonic oscillator and the rigid rotar. Modern research is featured throughout, along with new developments in the field such as scanning tunneling microscopy, bandgap engineering, quantum wells, teleportation, and quantum computing. Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics; Heat, Work, Internal Energy, Enthalpy, and the First Law of Thermodynamics; The Importance of State Functions: Internal Energy and Enthalpy; Thermochemistry; Entropy and the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics; Chemical Equilibrium; The Properties of Real Gases; Phase Diagrams and the Relative Stability of Solids, Liquids, and Gases; Ideal and Real Solutions; Electrolyte Solutions; Electrochemical Cells, Batteries, and Fuel Cells; Probability; The Boltzmann Distribution; Ensemble and Molecular Partition Functions; Kinetic Theory of Gases; Transport Phenomena; Elementary Chemical Kinetics; Complex Reaction Mechanisms. A useful reference for chemistry professionals.
Thomas Engel has taught chemistry for more than 20 years at the University of Washington, where he is currently Professor of Chemistry and Associate Chair for the Undergraduate Program. Professor Engel received his bachelor's and master's degrees in chemistry from the Johns Hopkins University, and his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of Chicago. He then spent 11 years as a researcher in Germany and Switzerland, in which time he received the Dr. rer. nat. habil. degree from the Ludwig Maximilians University in Munich. In 1980, he left the IBM research laboratory in Zurich to become a faculty member at the University of Washington.
Professor Engel's research interests are in the area of surface chemistry, and he has published more than 80 articles and book chapters in this field. He has received the Surface Chemistry or Colloids Award from the American Chemical Society and a Senior Humboldt Research Award from the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, which has allowed him to establish collaborations with researchers in Germany. He is currently working together with European manufacturers of catalytic converters to improve their performance for diesel engines.
Philip Reid has taught chemistry at the University of Washington since he joined the chemistry faculty in 1995. Professor Reid received his bachelor's degree from the University of Puget Sound in 1986, and his Ph.D. in chemistry from the University of California at Berkeley in 1992. He performed postdoctoral research at the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, campus before moving to Washington.
Professor Reid's research interests are in the areas of atmosphere chemistry, condensed-phase reaction dynamics, and nonlinear optical materials. He has published more than 70 articles in these fields. Professor Reid is the recipient of a CAREER award from the National Science Foundation, is a Cottrell Scholar of the Research Corporation, and is a Sloan fellow.
Table of Contents
Fundamental Concepts of Thermodynamics
What Is Thermodynamics and Why Is It Useful?
Basic Definitions Needed to Describe Thermodynamic Systems
Equations of State and the Ideal Gas Law
A Brief Introduction to Real Gases
Heat, Work, Internal energy, Enthalpy, and the First Law of Thermodynamics
The Internal Energy and the First Law of Thermodynamics
State Functions and Path Functions
Equilibrium, Change, and Reversibility
Comparing Work for Reversible and Irreversible Processes
Determining and Introducing Enthalpy, a New State Function
Calculating q, w, , an? for Processes Involving Ideal Gases
The Reversible Adiabatic Expansion and Compression of an Ideal Gas
The Importance of State Functions: Internal Energy and Enthalpy
The Mathematical Properties of State Functions
The Dependence of U on V and T
Does the Internal Energy Depend More Strongly on V or T?
The Variation of Enthalpy with Temperature at Constant Pressure
How Are CP and CV Related?
The Variation of Enthalpy with Pressure at Constant Temperature
The Joule-Thomson Experiment
Liquefying Gases Using an Isenthalpic Expansion
Energy Stored in Chemical Bonds Is Released or Taken Up in Chemical Reactions
Internal Energy and Enthalpy Changes Associated with Chemical Reactions
Hess's Law Is Based on Enthalpy Being a State Function
The Temperature Dependence of Reaction Enthalpies
The Experimental Determination o? and for Chemical Reactions
Differential Scanning Calorimetry
Entropy and the Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
The Universe Has a Natural Direction of Change
Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
Calculating Changes in Entropy
Using Entropy to Calculate the Natural Direction of a Process in an Isolated System
The Clausius Inequality
The Change of Entropy in the Surroundings and = +
Absolute Entropies and the Third Law of Thermodynamics
Standard States in Entropy Calculations
Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions
Refrigerators, Heat Pumps, and Real Engines 5.12 (Supplemental) Using the Fact that S Is a State Function to Determine the Dependence of S on V and T 5.13 (Supplemental) The Dependence of S on T and P 5.14 (Supplemental) The Thermodynamic Temperature Scale
The Gibbs Energy and the Helmholtz Energy
The Differential Forms of U, H, A, and G
The Dependence of the Gibbs and Helmholtz Energies on P, V, and T
The Gibbs Energy of a Reaction Mixture
The Gibbs Energy of a Gas in a Mixture
Calculating the Gibbs Energy of Mixing for Ideal Gases
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