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ENGAGE. THINK. DEBATE. Challenge your students to ENGAGE in the conversation and process; THINK about the ideas, history, structure, and function; and DEBATE the merits of American government and politics in the 21st century. In a storytelling approach that weaves contemporary examples together with historical context,By the People: Debating American Governmentexplores the themes and ideas that drive the great debates in American government and politics. It introduces students to big questions likeWho governs? Howdoes our system of government work? What does government do'andWho are we?By challenging students with these questions, the text gets them to think about, engage with, and debate the merits of U.S. government and politics. ENGAGE *"By the Numbers" boxescontaining fun facts help frame the quizzical reality of American politics and government *"Comparing Nations" boxesdiscuss how other nations operate their courts, legislatures, media, and elections and help students understand what is vital and distinctive about the U.S. *"See For Yourself" featuresenable students to connect with the click of a smart phone to videos and other interactive online content THINK *Chapter Twointroduces students to seven key American ideas, which are revisited throughout the text *"The Bottom Line" summariesconclude each chapter section, underscoring the most important aspects of the discussion DEBATE *"What Do You Think?" boxesencourage students to use their critical-thinking skills and debate issues in American government *Four major themes, in the form of questions to spark debate,are presented to students in Chapter One and appear throughout the text ENSURING STUDENT SUCCESS We offer qualified adopters a comprehensive ancillary package: Companion Website at www.oup.com/us/morone For instructors, this site includes the teaching tools described below. For students, it offers a number of study tools including learning objectives, key-concept summaries, quizzes and essay questions, web activities, and web links. Instructor's Resource Manual with Test Bank Computerized Test Bank:Using the test authoring and management tool Diploma, this computerized test bank is designed for both novice and advanced users. PowerPoint-based Slides:Each chapter's slide deck includes a succinct chapter outline and incorporates relevant chapter graphics. Available on the Instructor's Resource CD and as a download online. Instructor's Resource CD:This includes the Instructor's Resource Manual with Tests, the Computerized Test Bank, the PowerPoint-based slides, and the graphics from the text. Now Playing: Learning American Government Through Film:This concise print supplement provides a variety of suggested films that illustrate concepts covered in the text. It is available in both a student and an instructor version and can be packaged withBy The Peoplefor free. CNN Video Guide E-Book:Available through CourseSmart Course Cartridges Packaging Options Adopters ofBy The Peoplecan package any Oxford University Press book with the text for a 20% savings off the total package price. See our many trade and scholarly offerings at www.oup.com/us, then contact your local OUP sales representative to request a package ISBN. In addition, any title from theVery Short Introduction Series,a collection of brief books offering succinct introductions to a variety of topics, can be packaged for FREE.
James Morone (B.A., Middlebury College, and M.A. and PhD, University of Chicago) is Professor of Political Science at Brown University and five-time winner of the Hazeltine Citation for outstanding teacher of the year. A renowned scholar of American Political Science, Dr. Morone, an award-winning author, has published eight books including The Heart of Power (2009), Hellfire Nation (2003), and The Democratic Wish (1990). He served as President of the Politics and History Section of the American Political Science Association from 1999-2000 and the New England Political Science Association from 2002-03. He has been on the board of editors for eight scholarly journals and comments on politics in The New York Times, The London Review of Books, and The American Prospect.
Rogan Kersh (M.A. and PhD, Yale) is Provost and Professor of Political Science at Wake Forest University. A leading scholar in American Political Science, Dr. Kersh is best known for his work on health reform, obesity politics, and interest groups/lobbying. From 2006-12 he served as Associate Dean of the Wagner School of Public Service at New York University, where he built an undergraduate program, helped conceive and create NYU's new campus in Abu Dhabi, and was integral in the launch of a new Global Institute of Public Health. Dr. Kersh has published two books, more than fifty academic articles, and has provided commentary on U.S politics for dozens of different media outlets including CNN, Newsweek, and The New York Times. He was President of the American Political Science Association's organized section on Health Politics and Policy in 2011-12, and is an elected Fellow of the National Academy of Public Administration.
Table of Contents
Each chapter ends with a Summary and Study Questions. About the Authors Preface Acknowledgments PART I. IDEAS AND RIGHTS Chapter 1. The Spirit of American Politics Comparing Nations: A President's Pledge Who Governs? How Does American Politics Work? Ideas Institutions Interests Individuals History What Does Government Do? Context: Governments in Society We Hate Government! What Government Does Where Dislike of Government Really Matters The Best of Government Who Are We? What Do You Think? Getting Engaged in Politics--or Not Chapter 2. The Ideas That Shape America A Nation of Ideas Liberty "The Land of the Free" The Two Sides of Liberty What Do You Think? Negative vs. Positive Liberty The Idea of Freedom Is Always Changing Self-Rule Power from the People One Side of Self-Rule: Democracy Another Side of Self-Rule: A Republic A Mixed System Limited Government The Origins of Limited Government And Yet . . . the United States Has a Big Government Limits of Government Action When Ideas Clash: Self-Rule and Limited Government What Do You Think? Self Rule vs. Limited Government Individualism Community vs. Individualism Comparing Nations: Which is More Important? The Roots of American Individualism: Opportunity and Discord Who We Are: Individualism and Solidarity? What Do You Think? Individualism vs. Solidarity The American Dream Spreading the Dream Challenging the Dream Comparing Nations: Views of Individualism and the Role of the State Equality Three Kinds of Equality Comparing Nations: Inequality Levels How Much Economic Inequality Is Too Much? Opportunity or Outcome? Religion Still Religious: A Religious Country So Many Religions The Politics of Religion How Do Ideas Affect Politics? Ideas in American Culture The Ideas in Political Institutions Culture or Institutions? Culture and Institutions, Together Chapter 3. The Constitution The Colonial Roots of the Constitution Comparing Nations: The United States Constitution in Comparative Context Why the Colonists Revolted The Colonial Complaint: Representation The Conflict Begins with Blood on the Frontier The Stamp Tax and the First Hints of Independence The Townsend Acts Worsen the Conflict The Boston Tea Party Revolution! A Long Legacy The Declaration of Independence The Principle: "We hold these truths . . ." Grievances The First American Government: The Articles of Confederation Independent States The National Government Some Success . . . . . . And Some Problems Winner and Losers What Do You Think? Your Advice is Needed The First Step: Annapolis Convention Not "Demigods" but Shrewd Politicians Secrecy What Do You Think? Was Delegate Secrecy Warranted? The Constitutional Convention How Much Power to the People? National Government versus State Government Big States versus Small States The President Separation of Powers "A Principle of Which We Were Ashamed" An Overview of the Constitution Preamble What Do You Think? Have We Achieved the Constitution's Goals Today? Article 1: Congress What Do You Think? Detention of Terrorism Suspects Article 2: The President Article 3: The Courts Comparing Nations: The United States Government is Different from Most Democracies Article 4: Relations Between the States Article 5: Amendments Article 6: The Law of the Land Article 7: Ratification The Missing Articles Ratification The Anti-Federalists The Federalists Two Strong Arguments A Very Close Call A Popular Surge Propels People into Politics Changing the Constitution The Bill of Rights The Seventeen Amendments The Constitution Today What Do You Think? How Strictly Should We Interpret the Constitution? Chapter 4. Federalism and Nationalism Why Federalism? Choosing Federalism Comparing Nations: Nations With Federal Systems of Government The Disadvantages The Stakes What Do You Think? Preserving Local Values or Continuing a Terrible Injustice? How Federalism Works The Constitution Sets the Ground Rules Dual Federalism Cooperative Federalism New Federalism Battles over Federalism Today Federalism and the Parties What Do You Think? Intergovernmental Lobbying, American Style Federalism in the Courts Federalism's Secret Nationalism, American Style The Rise of American Nationalism Comparing Nations: The Early Birth of American Nationalism America's Weak National Government The Hidden State Chapter 5. Civil Liberties: Protecting Individuals The Rise of Civil Liberties Civil Rights and Civil Liberties The Purpose of Civil Liberties The Slow Rise of Rights Privacy Penumbra and Emanations What Do You Think? Is There a Right to Privacy? Roe v. Wade Planned Parenthood v. Casey Sexuality Between Consenting Adults Clashing Principles Freedom of Religion The Establishment Clause What Do You Think? May the Christian Youth Club Meet in School? Free Exercise of Religion What Do You Think? David's Law Freedom of Speech A Preferred Position Political Speech Symbolic Speech Comparing Nations Civil Liberties Around the World Limits to Free Speech: Fighting Words Freedom of the Press Prior Restraint Obscenity Libel What Do You Think? Campaign Finance Reform The Right to Bear Arms A Relic of the Revolution? The Palladium of All Liberties? The Rights of the Accused Americans Behind Bars The Fourth Amendment: Search and Seizure The Fifth Amendment: Rights at Trials The Sixth Amendment: The Right to Counsel The Eighth Amendment: The Death Penalty What Do You Think? End the Death Penalty? Comparing Nations: Criminal Justice in France and the United States Fighting Terrorism and Protecting Liberty Contracts with Forbidden Groups Wiretaps Visitors Libraries The Right Balance Chapter 6. The Struggle for Civil Rights Winning Rights: The Political Process Seven Steps to Political Equality How the Courts Review Cases Race and Civil Rights: Revolt Against Slavery The Clash Over Slavery Dred Scott v. Sanford The Second American Founding: A New Birth of Freedom? Freedom Fails The Fight for Racial Equality Two Kinds of Discrimination The Civil Rights Campaign Begins The Courts The Civil Rights Movement What Do You Think? Would You Have Been a 60s Protester? Congress and the Civil Rights Act The End of the Civil Rights Era Divisions in the Movement Affirmative Action in the Work Place Affirmative Action in Education School Busing What Do You Think? Higher Education and Affirmative Action Where Are We Now? Gender Suffrage Comparing Nations: Women in National Legislatures The Civil Rights Act of 1964 The Courts Progress--but How Much? Gender Politics Today Hispanics Challenging Discrimination Latinos and the Politics of Immigration The Controversy over Language Political Mobilization Asian Americans The Asian Stereotypes Political Mobilization What Do You Think? Simple Decency? Or Political Correctness Run Amuck? Native Americans The Lost Way of Life Indians and the Federal Government Social Problems and Politics Groups Without Special Protection People with Disabilities Sexual Orientation PART II. POLITICAL BEHAVIOR Chapter 7. Political Participation How We Participate Passionates, Scorekeepers, and Uninvolved What Do You Think? Blending Participatory Styles Benefits of Public Participation The Diminishing Public Getting Involved: Electoral, Voluntary, and Political Voice Electoral Activities Comparing Nations: Voter Turnout in Selected Countries Civic Voluntarism What Do you think? Volunteer Globally? Political Voice What Inspires Political Participation? Spurs to Individual Participation Cycles of Public Participation Explaining the Cycles What Discourages Political Participation? Age, Wealth, and Education Alienation Institutional Barriers Complacency Shifting Mobilization Patterns Generation Y and Political Participation The Internet, Social Media, and Participation Behavior and Political Participation Government as "Nudgeocracy" Our All-Too-Human Behaviors Chapter 8. Public Opinion Public Opinion in a Democracy Ignorant Masses? Or a Self-Governing People? Skeptics Question the Influence of Public Opinion The Public is Wise and Rational What Do You Think? How Do You Participate? Public Opinion and Governing Do the People Know What They Want? How Do the People Communicate Their Desires? Do Leaders Respond to Public Opinion? Comparing Nations: Polling Around the Globe Measuring Public Opinion Polling 101 Modern Polling: From "Landslide Landon" to Scientific Surveys Do Opinion Surveys Influence Us? What Do You Think? Calling the Election Early? Sources of Public Opinion Self-Interest: Voting Our Pocketbooks Demographic Effects: From Region to Religion Partisan Effects Elite Influences Wars and Other Focusing Events Chapter 9. The Media American Media Today: Traditional Formats are Declining Where People Go For News Newspaper Decline Radio Holds Steady Television: From News to Infotainment Movies: Mirroring America What Do You Think? Movies that Take a Stand The Media Today The Rise of New Media Scenario 1: Rebooting Democracy Scenario 2: More Hype and Danger than Democratic Renaissance Is the Media Biased? Reporters Are Democrats Profits Drive the News Industry Drama Delivers Audiences Conflict Draws an Audience Sex and Scandal The Skeptical Media The Fairness Bias How Governments Shape the Media Regulating Broadcasters Protecting Competition Media Around the World Government-Owned Stations The Rise of Commercial Media The Foreign Press Takes Sides Newspapers Around the World Censorship Comparing Nations: Censorship Under Pressure? American Media in the World How the Media Shapes Politics News Stories Reinforce Existing Beliefs The Political Agenda Priming the Public Framing the Issue The Media's Electoral Connection The Campaign as drama Candidate Profiles What Do You Think? Does the Media Enhance Democracy? Chapter 10. Campaigns and Elections Campaigns and Elections, U.S. Style Federalism and American Elections Are U.S. Elections Democratic? Comparing Nations: Election Timetables for Legislature/Chief Executive Number of Elected Officials What Do You Think? Too Many Elected Positions? Financing Campaigns: Equality of Voices: Financing Campaigns Presidential Campaigns and Elections Who Runs for President? Presidential Campaigns: Three Phases Winning the Nomination What Do You Think? Why Iowa and New Hampshire? Organizing the Convention The General Election Winning Presidential Elections U.S. Economic Outlook Demographics War and Foreign Policy Domestic Issues Organization/Advisers Predicting Presidential Elections Congressional Campaigns and Elections Candidates: Who Runs for Congress? The Power of Incumbency Congressional Election Results Redrawing the Lines: The Art of the Gerrymander Nonpartisan Districting and Minority Representation Critical Elections: Engine of History or American Myth? The Rise of Candidate-Centered Elections "Critical" Midterm Election Outcomes Do You Want to Run for Congress? Chapter 11. Political Parties Political Parties and U.S. Government What the Parties Do Two-Party America Comparing Nations: Organizing Electoral/Governing Systems Third Parties in American Politics How Parties are Organized Party in Government Party Organization Party in the Electorate The Big Party Tents America's Party Systems: Origins and Change Beginnings: First Party System (1789-1828) Rise: Second Party System (c. 1828-1860) War and Reconstruction: Third Party System (1860-1896) Business and Reform: Fourth Party System (1896-1932) Depression and New Deal: Fifth Party System (1933-1972) The Sixth Party System: The Parties at Equal Strength (1972-Present) What Do You Think? Does the 2012 Election Suggest a New Party Period? Why the Party Period Matters Party Identification . . . and Ideas Building Party Identification What Do You Think? Personality and Party The Power of Party Attachment Republican Factions Democratic Factions Party Competition . . . and Partisanship Parties Rise Again Competition Intensifies Partisanship and Its Discontents What Do You Think? Winner Take All What Do You Think? Third Parties What Do You Think? Partisanship Chapter 12. Interest Groups Interest Groups: Them or Us? Interest Groups and Lobbying Examples: Lobbying Groups in Action What Groups Do For Members Who Represents the Public Interest? Interest Groups and Power Lobbyist Spending What Do You Think? Assessing the Influence of Lobbyists Regulating Interest Groups Lobbying Past and Present Lobbying at the Dawn of an Industrial Age Reforming the System: Progressives to Post-WWII 1960s Advocacy Explosion "Young Guns" and Women Comparing Nations: The Spread of American-Style Lobbying Lobbyists in Action The Multiple Roles of Lobbyists Private and Public Advocacy Private Representatives: From Single-Firmers to Hired Guns Public Advocates: Forming and Tending Groups Nonprofits Don't Lobby? Lobbying the Federal Branches of Government Rise of the Issue Network Intergovernmental and Reverse Lobbying Lobbying the Courts Three Insider Keys to Effective Washington Lobbying Are Interest Groups Bad or Good for America? Four Concerns About Lobbying Four Defenses of Lobbying What Do You Think? Are Interest Groups Good for American Government? PART III. POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS Chapter 13. Congress Introducing Congress Two Houses, Different Styles What Do You Think? Senate Filibusters Congressional Representation What Do You Think? Who Really Represents You? Does Congress Reflect America? Comparing Nations: Women in National Legislatures Trustees and Delegates What Do You Think? Two Views of Representation Elections: Getting to Congress --and Staying There Congressional Elections Home Styles: Back in the District A Government of Strangers Congress at Work The City on the Hill Minnows and Whales: Congressional Leadership House Leadership Senate Leadership Intangibles of Congressional Leadership Committees: Workhorses of Congress The Enduring Power of Committees Leadership and Assignments Comparing Nations: A Unique U.S. System Legislative Policymaking The Importance of the Legislative Process Drafting a Bill to Life Submitting the Bill Committee Action Floor Action Conference Committee Presidential Action: Separated Powers, Once More House-Senate Relations The House and Senate Have Some Unique Roles The Other Body Why is Congress so Unpopular? What Do You Think? Is a Partisan Congress a Good Thing? Divided Government Some Popular Reforms--and Their Limits Term Limits Are We Tired of Democracy Itself? Chapter 14. The Presidency Defining the Presidency The Silence of Article II The President's Powers Comparing Nations: Chief Executives' Power Is the President Too Powerful? An Imperial Presidency? A Weak Office? What Presidents Do Commander-in-Chief Top Diplomat The First Legislator Chief Bureaucrat Economist-in-Chief The Head of State Party Leader The Bully Pulpit: Introducing Ideas The Impossible Job Presidential Leadership: Success and Failures in the Oval Office Managing the Public Approval Ratings Presidential Greatness Greatness in Context: The Rise and Fall of Political Orders What Do You Think? Changing Political Order The Personal Presidency Presidential Style What Do You Think? The President in Action A Model of the Personal Presidency The Burden of the Office The President's Team: A Tour of the White House The Political Solar System: Presidential Appointments The Vice President The Cabinet The Executive Office of the President The First Spouse Chapter 15. Bureaucracy How the Bureaucracy Grew Before the Bureaucracy The Bureaucratic Model Bureaucratic Pathologies The Democratic Dilemma What Bureaucracies Do Implementation How the Bureaucracy is Organized The Cabinet Departments Comparing Nations: Parliamentary Systems Other Agencies Who Controls the Federal Bureaucracy? The People The President Congress Interest Groups Bureaucratic Autonomy Democracy Revisited Reforming the Bureaucracy Reforming the Bureaucracy What Do You Think? Should We Privatize More Government Functions? Chapter 16. The Judicial Branch Who are We? A Nation of Laws . . . and Lawyers Embracing the Law-- and Lawsuits Declining Trust Courts in American Culture Organizing the Judicial Branch Divided We Rule What Do You Think? How Should States Select Their Judges? Federal Courts Specialized Courts Diversity in the Federal Judiciary What Do You Think? Identity on the Bench The Court's Role Judicial Review Activism versus Restraint The Judicial Process Judicial Mystique Too Much Power? Comparing Nations: Power of the Judiciary . . . or Still the "Least Dangerous" Branch? The Supreme Court and How It Operates Hearing Cases Selecting Cases: Formal Requirements Selecting Cases: Informal Factors Conference Sessions and Written Decisions Supreme Court Clerks Confirmation Battles Judicial Decision-Making and Reform The Role of Law Ideology and Partisanship Collegiality and Peer Pressure Nineteen Cases You Should Know 1. Marbury v. Madison (1803) 2. McCullough v. Maryland (1819) 3. Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819) 4. Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) 5. Santa Clara Co. v. Southern Pacific Rail Road (1886) 6. Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) 7. Lochner v. New York (1905) 8. Muller v. Oregon (1908) 9. Schneck v. United States (1919) 10. National Labor Relations Board v. Jones & Laughlin Steel Corporation (1937) 11. Korematsu v. U.S. (1944) 12. Everson v. Board of Education (1947) 13. Brown v. Board of Ed. (1954) 14. Mapp v. Ohio (1961) 15. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) 16. Roe v. Wade (1973) 17. U.S. v. Nixon (1974) 18. Bush v. Gore (2000) 19. National Federation of Independent Business v. Sibelius (2012) What Do You Think? Name Another Landmark Case Criticizing the Judiciary Critiquing the Judiciary Ideas for Reform: More Resources Term Limits PART IV. POLICYMAKING Chapter 17. Public Policymaking and Budgeting Public Policymaking in Five (Not-So-Easy) Stages 1. Agenda Setting 2. Framing 3. Policy Formation Analyzing Policy, Ex Ante From Cost-Benefit Analysis to Politics 1. Policy Implementation 2. Policy Evaluation and Feedback Ex Post Policy Evaluations A Case in Point: Gang Violence Another Case: Calorie Labels on Fast Food Menus Policy Feedback U.S. Social Policy Wars and Social Policy Old-Age Insurance: Social Security Unemployment Benefits Health and Disability: Medicare/Medicaid What Do You Think? Should we Reform Social Security and Medicare? Making Good Policy Moral Policies: Justice or Democracy? Economically Efficient Policies Markets, Privatization, and Policy Capitalism Goes to the Movies The Federal Budget Process President's Budget Proposal Congressional budget Resolution Reign of the Cardinals: Appropriations Committee Action Comparing Nations: Budget Policymaking Reforming U.S. Policymaking Systemic Reform Policy Entrepreneurs Chapter 18. Foreign Policy American Foreign Policy Goal No. 1: Security Defining the Dangers The Military Should the United States Scale Back the Military? Comparing Nations: Militaries and Democracies Soft Power Foreign Aid and Other Forms of Security What Do You Think? Downsizing the Military American Foreign Policy Goal No. 2: Prosperity Free Trade Challenges to Free Trade Assisting Business Energy Economic Weapons A Nation in Decline? Foreign Policy Perspectives American Exceptionalism Values in Decline? What Do You Think? Is America Exceptional? Engage the World Go It Alone or Act with Others? Four Approaches What Do You Think? Foreign Policy Perspectives Who Makes Foreign Policy? Congress The President The State Department The Department of Defense Intelligence The National Security Council Other Executive Agencies Interest Groups and the Public Success or Fragmentation? Adding All of It Up: Grand Strategies Over Time Strategy 1. Standing Alone: 1908-1939 Strategy 2. The Cold War: 1945-1991 Strategy 3. The New World Order: 1989-2003 Strategy 4. The War on Terror (began 2001) What Do You Think? Terrorists and the Rule of Law Appendix I. The Declaration of Independence Appendix II. The Constitution of the United States of America Appendix III. The Federalist Papers 1, 10, and 51 Appendix IV. Presidents, Congresses, and Chief Justices Glossary Notes Credits Index