# Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineers with Microfluidics and CFD

by: Wilkes, James O.

**ISBN 13:**## 9780131482128

**ISBN 10:**## 0131482122

**Edition:**2nd**Format:**Hardcover**Copyright:**09/29/2005**Publisher:**Prentice Hall- Newer Edition

Note: Not guaranteed to come with supplemental materials (access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.)

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### Summary

Since most chemical processing applications are conducted either partially or totally in the fluid phase, chemical engineers need a strong understanding of fluid mechanics. Such knowledge is especially valuable for solving problems in the biochemical, chemical, energy, fermentation, materials, mining, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, polymer, and waste-processing industries.

### Author Biography

Read morePreface | p. xv |

Macroscopic Fluid Mechanics | |

Introduction to Fluid Mechanics | |

Fluid Mechanics in Chemical Engineering | p. 3 |

General Concepts of a Fluid | p. 3 |

Stresses, Pressure, Velocity, and the Basic Laws | p. 5 |

Physical Properties-Density, Viscosity, and Surface Tension | p. 10 |

Units and Systems of Units | p. 21 |

Units Conversion | p. 24 |

Mass of Air in a Room | p. 25 |

Hydrostatics | p. 26 |

Pressure in an Oil Storage Tank | p. 29 |

Multiple Fluid Hydrostatics | p. 30 |

Pressure Variations in a Gas | p. 31 |

Hydrostatic Force on a Curved Surface | p. 35 |

Application of Archimedes' Law | p. 37 |

Pressure Change Caused by Rotation | p. 39 |

Overflow from a Spinning Container | p. 40 |

Problems for Chapter 1 | p. 42 |

Mass, Energy, and Momentum Balances | |

General Conservation Laws | p. 55 |

Mass Balances | p. 57 |

Mass Balance for Tank Evacuation | p. 58 |

Energy Balances | p. 61 |

Pumping n-Pentane | p. 65 |

Bernoulli's Equation | p. 67 |

Applications of Bernoulli's Equation | p. 70 |

Tank Filling | p. 76 |

Momentum Balances | p. 78 |

Impinging Jet of Water | p. 83 |

Velocity of Wave on Water | p. 84 |

Flow Measurement by a Rotameter | p. 89 |

Pressure, Velocity, and Flow Rate Measurement | p. 92 |

Problems for Chapter 2 | p. 96 |

Fluid Friction in Pipes | |

Introduction | p. 120 |

Laminar Flow | p. 123 |

Polymer Flow in a Pipeline | p. 128 |

Models for Shear Stress | p. 129 |

Piping and Pumping Problems | p. 133 |

Unloading Oil from a Tanker Specified Flow Rate and Diameter | p. 142 |

Unloading Oil from a Tanker Specified Diameter and Pressure Drop | p. 144 |

Unloading Oil from a Tanker Specified Flow Rate and Pressure Drop | p. 147 |

Unloading Oil from a Tanker Miscellaneous Additional Calculations | p. 147 |

Flow in Noncircular Ducts | p. 150 |

Flow in an Irrigation Ditch | p. 152 |

Compressible Gas Flow in Pipelines | p. 156 |

Compressible Flow in Nozzles | p. 159 |

Complex Piping Systems | p. 163 |

Solution of a Piping/Pumping Problem | p. 165 |

Problems for Chapter 3 | p. 168 |

Flow in Chemical Engineering Equipment | |

Introduction | p. 185 |

Pumps and Compressors | p. 188 |

Pumps in Series and Parallel | p. 193 |

Drag Force on Solid Particles in Fluids | p. 194 |

Manufacture of Lead Shot | p. 202 |

Flow Through Packed Beds | p. 204 |

Pressure Drop in a Packed-Bed Reactor | p. 208 |

Filtration | p. 210 |

Fluidization | p. 215 |

Dynamics of a Bubble-Cap Distillation Column | p. 216 |

Cyclone Separators | p. 219 |

Sedimentation | p. 222 |

Dimensional Analysis | p. 224 |

Thickness of the Laminar Sublayer | p. 229 |

Problems for Chapter 4 | p. 230 |

Microscopic Fluid Mechanics | |

Differential Equations of Fluid Mechanics | |

Introduction to Vector Analysis | p. 249 |

Vector Operations | p. 250 |

The Gradient of a Scalar | p. 253 |

The Divergence of a Vector | p. 257 |

An Alternative to the Differential Element | p. 257 |

The Curl of a Vector | p. 262 |

The Laplacian of a Scalar | p. 262 |

Other Coordinate Systems | p. 263 |

The Convective Derivative | p. 266 |

Differential Mass Balance | p. 267 |

Physical Interpretation of the Net Rate of Mass Outflow | p. 269 |

Alternative Derivation of the Continuity Equation | p. 270 |

Differential Momentum Balances | p. 271 |

Newtonian Stress Components in Cartesian Coordinates | p. 274 |

Constant-Viscosity Momentum Balances in Terms of Velocity Gradients | p. 280 |

Vector Form of Variable-Viscosity Momentum Balance | p. 284 |

Problems for Chapter 5 | p. 285 |

Solution of Viscous-Flow Problems | |

Introduction | p. 292 |

Solution of the Equations of Motion in Rectangular Coordinates | p. 294 |

Flow Between Parallel Plates | p. 294 |

Alternative Solution Using a Shell Balance | p. 301 |

Shell Balance for Flow Between Parallel Plates | p. 301 |

Film Flow on a Moving Substrate | p. 303 |

Transient Viscous Diffusion of Momentum (COMSOL) | p. 307 |

Poiseuille and Couette Flows in Polymer Processing | p. 312 |

The Single-Screw Extruder | p. 313 |

Flow Patterns in a Screw Extruder (COMSOL) | p. 318 |

Solution of the Equations of Motion in Cylindrical Coordinates | p. 322 |

Flow Through an Annular Die | p. 322 |

Spinning a Polymeric Fiber | p. 325 |

Solution of the Equations of Motion in Spherical Coordinates | p. 327 |

Analysis of a Cone-and-Plate Rheometer | p. 328 |

Problems for Chapter 6 | p. 333 |

Laplace's Equation, Irrotational and Porous-Media Flows | |

Introduction | p. 354 |

Rotational and Irrotational Flows | p. 356 |

Forced and Free Vortices | p. 359 |

Steady Two-Dimensional Irrotational Flow | p. 361 |

Physical Interpretation of the Stream Function | p. 364 |

Examples of Planar Irrotational Flow | p. 366 |

Stagnation Flow | p. 369 |

Combination of a Uniform Stream and a Line Sink (C) | p. 371 |

Flow Patterns in a Lake (COMSOL) | p. 373 |

Axially Symmetric Irrotational Flow | p. 378 |

Uniform Streams and Point Sources | p. 380 |

Doublets and Flow Past a Sphere | p. 384 |

Single-Phase Flow in a Porous Medium | p. 387 |

Underground Flow of Water | p. 388 |

Two-Phase Flow in Porous Media | p. 390 |

Wave Motion in Deep Water | p. 396 |

Problems for Chapter 7 | p. 400 |

Boundary-Layer and Other Nearly Unidirectional Flows | |

Introduction | p. 414 |

Simplified Treatment of Laminar Flow Past a Flat Plate | p. 415 |

Flow in an Air Intake (C) | p. 420 |

Simplification of the Equations of Motion | p. 422 |

Blasius Solution for Boundary-Layer Flow | p. 425 |

Turbulent Boundary Layers | p. 428 |

Laminar and Turbulent Boundary Layers Compared | p. 429 |

Dimensional Analysis of the Boundary-Layer Problem | p. 430 |

Boundary-Layer Separation | p. 433 |

Boundary-Layer Flow Between Parallel Plates (COMSOL Library) | p. 435 |

Entrance Region for Laminar Flow Between Flat Plates | p. 440 |

The Lubrication Approximation | p. 442 |

Flow in a Lubricated Bearing (COMSOL) | p. 448 |

Polymer Processing by Calendering | p. 450 |

Pressure Distribution in a Calendered Sheet | p. 454 |

Thin Films and Surface Tension | p. 456 |

Problems for Chapter 8 | p. 459 |

Turbulent Flow | |

Introduction | p. 473 |

Numerical Illustration of a Reynolds Stress Term | p. 479 |

Physical Interpretation of the Reynolds Stresses | p. 480 |

Mixing-Length Theory | p. 481 |

Determination of Eddy Kinematic Viscosity and Mixing Length | p. 484 |

Velocity Profiles Based on Mixing-Length Theory | p. 486 |

Investigation of the von Karman Hypothesis | p. 487 |

The Universal Velocity Profile for Smooth Pipes | p. 488 |

Friction Factor in Terms of Reynolds Number for Smooth Pipes | p. 490 |

Expression for the Mean Velocity | p. 491 |

Thickness of the Laminar Sublayer | p. 492 |

Velocity Profiles and Friction Factor for Rough Pipe | p. 494 |

Blasius-Type Law and the Power-Law Velocity Profile | p. 495 |

A Correlation for the Reynolds Stresses | p. 496 |

Computation of Turbulence by the [kappa]/[epsilon] Method | p. 499 |

Flow Through an Orifice Plate (COMSOL) | p. 501 |

Turbulent Jet Flow (COMSOL) | p. 505 |

Analogies Between Momentum and Heat Transfer | p. 509 |

Evaluation of the Momentum/Heat-Transfer Analogies | p. 511 |

Turbulent Jets | p. 513 |

Problems for Chapter 9 | p. 521 |

Bubble Motion, Two-Phase Flow, and Fluidization | |

Introduction | p. 531 |

Rise of Bubbles in Unconfined Liquids | p. 531 |

Rise Velocity of Single Bubbles | p. 536 |

Pressure Drop and Void Fraction in Horizontal Pipes | p. 536 |

Two-Phase Flow in a Horizontal Pipe | p. 541 |

Two-Phase Flow in Vertical Pipes | p. 543 |

Limits of Bubble Flow | p. 546 |

Performance of a Gas-Lift Pump | p. 550 |

Two-Phase Flow in a Vertical Pipe | p. 553 |

Flooding | p. 555 |

Introduction to Fluidization | p. 559 |

Bubble Mechanics | p. 561 |

Bubbles in Aggregatively Fluidized Beds | p. 566 |

Fluidized Bed with Reaction (C) | p. 572 |

Problems for Chapter 10 | p. 575 |

Non-Newtonian Fluids | |

Introduction | p. 591 |

Classification of Non-Newtonian Fluids | p. 592 |

Constitutive Equations for Inelastic Viscous Fluids | p. 595 |

Pipe Flow of a Power-Law Fluid | p. 600 |

Pipe Flow of a Bingham Plastic | p. 604 |

Non-Newtonian Flow in a Die (COMSOL Library) | p. 606 |

Constitutive Equations for Viscoelastic Fluids | p. 613 |

Response to Oscillatory Shear | p. 620 |

Characterization of the Rheological Properties of Fluids | p. 623 |

Proof of the Rabinowitsch Equation | p. 624 |

Working Equation for a Coaxial-Cylinder Rheometer: Newtonian Fluid | p. 628 |

Problems for Chapter 11 | p. 630 |

Microfluidics and Electrokinetic Flow Effects | |

Introduction | p. 639 |

Physics of Microscale Fluid Mechanics | p. 640 |

Pressure-Driven Flow Through Microscale Tubes | p. 641 |

Calculation of Reynolds Numbers | p. 641 |

Mixing, Transport, and Dispersion | p. 642 |

Species, Energy, and Charge Transport | p. 644 |

The Electrical Double Layer and Electrokinetic Phenomena | p. 647 |

Relative Magnitudes of Electroosmotic and Pressure-Driven Flows | p. 648 |

Electroosmotic Flow Around a Particle | p. 653 |

Electroosmosis in a Microchannel (COMSOL) | p. 653 |

Electroosmotic Switching in a Branched Microchannel (COMSOL) | p. 657 |

Measuring the Zeta Potential | p. 659 |

Magnitude of Typical Streaming Potentials | p. 660 |

Electroviscosity | p. 661 |

Particle and Macromolecule Motion in Microfluidic Channels | p. 661 |

Gravitational and Magnetic Settling of Assay Beads | p. 662 |

Problems for Chapter 12 | p. 666 |

An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics and Flowlab | |

Introduction and Motivation | p. 671 |

Numerical Methods | p. 673 |

Learning CFD by Using FlowLab | p. 682 |

Practical CFD Examples | p. 686 |

Developing Flow in a Pipe Entrance Region (FlowLab) | p. 687 |

Pipe Flow Through a Sudden Expansion (FlowLab) | p. 690 |

A Two-Dimensional Mixing Junction (FlowLab) | p. 692 |

Flow Over a Cylinder (FlowLab) | p. 696 |

References for Chapter 13 | p. 702 |

Comsol (Femlab) Multiphysics for Solving Fluid Mechanics Problems | |

Introduction to COMSOL | p. 703 |

How to Run COMSOL | p. 705 |

Flow in a Porous Medium with an Obstruction (COMSOL) | p. 705 |

Draw Mode | p. 719 |

Solution and Related Modes | p. 724 |

Fluid Mechanics Problems Solvable by COMSOL | p. 725 |

Problems for Chapter 14 | p. 730 |

Useful Mathematical Relationships | p. 731 |

Answers to the True/False Assertions | p. 737 |

Some Vector and Tensor Operations | p. 740 |

Index | p. 743 |

The Authors | p. 753 |

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