ISBN: 9780190456405 | 019045640X

Edition: 3rdFormat: Paperback

Publisher: Oxford University Press

Pub. Date: 11/2/2015

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The History of the Social Sciences

The Nature of Communication

Understanding the Book's Format

Research outside the Walls of Academia

Epistemology

Ordinary vs. Scientific Ways of Knowing

Scientific Method

Theories

Predictions/Hypotheses

Observations

Empirical Generalizations

Conclusion

Research outside the Walls of Academia

Good means-Good End: Ethical Behavior

Bad Means-Bad End: Unethical Behavior

Bad Means-Good End: Machiavellian Ethic

Good Means-Bad End: Subjective Ethic

Informed Consent

Principle of Beneficence

Justice

Institutional Review Board Basics

Informed Consent

Institutional Review Board Processes

Basic IRB Functions

Advanced IRB Functions

Data Accuracy

Data Sharing

Duplicate Data Publication

Post Hoc Hypothesis Revision

Participant Identity Disclosures

Authorship Credit

Conflicts of Interest

Plagiarism

Source Not Cited Types of Plagiarism

Source Cited Types of Plagiarism

Conclusion

Step One: Identifying the Topic

Stating the Topic in the Form of a Research Question

Identifying Key Terms and Synonymous Terms

Types of Information Sources

Locating Information Sources

Handbooks and Subject Encyclopedias

Electronic Databases

The World Wide Web

Working with Librarians

Evaluating Web Sources

Step Five: Citing Sources of Information Using the APA Format

What Information Needs to be Referenced?

Citing Sources of Information

Parenthetical Citations

Quotations and Paraphrases

Creating a Title Page

Creating an Abstract

Creating the First Page

Creating the Reference Page

Conclusion

The Abstract

The Introduction

Attention-Getter

Using Statistics or Claims

Posing a Rhetorical Question

Using an Acknowledged Fact

Using a Story or Illustration

Quoting or Acknowledging a Source

Link to Topic

Significance of Topic

Espousal of Credibility

Thesis and Preview

Five Reasons FOR Literature Reviews

Previous Research

Chronological

Cause and Effect

Compare and Contrast

Problem-Cause-Solution

Psychological

Categorical/Topical

General to Specific

Specific to General

Known to Unknown

Method Section

Participants

Apparatus

Procedure

Instrumentation

Discussion Section

The Conclusion

Research Outside the Walls of Academia

Reading & Critiquing Academic Literature

Preparing a First Draft

Step 1: Identify Your General Topic

Step 2: Determine the Type of Study you are Conducting

Step 3: Determine what Variables You will Examine

Step 4: Search for Primary Sources

Step 5: Obtain Full Text References

Step 6: Look for Other References in Obtained Materials

Step 7: Narrow Your List of References

Step 8: Organize References by Major and Subtopics

Step 9: Look for Gaps in Your References

Step 10: Find References to Fill Gaps

Step 11: Create a Literature Review Outline

Step 12: Write

Conclusion

Variables: Units of Analysis

Types of Units

Aspects of Variables

Variable attributes

Variable values

Understanding relationships and Differences

Relationships

Differences

Variable Levels

Nominal Variables

Ordinal Variables

Interval Variables

Likert

Semantic Differential

Staple's

Scalogram

Ratio Variables

Nominal Variables

Ordinal Variables

Interval Variables

Common Interval Variable Measures

Communication Apprehension

Ethnocentrism

Humor Assessment

Nonverbal Immediacy

Sociocommunicative Orientation

Willingness to Communicate

Beliefs and Attitudes

Ratio Variables

Participants

Procedures

Instrumentation

Conclusion

Numbers and Things

Nominal

Ordinal

Interval

Ratio

Likert scales

Semantic differential

Personality Traits/States

Beliefs and Attitudes

Knowledge

Conceptualization

Operationalization

One Measure, Multiple Factors

Finding Mental Measures

Research Outside the Walls of Academia

Conclusion

Reliability

Scalar Reliability

Test-Retest Reliability

Alternate Forms Reliability

Split-Half Reliability

Cronbach's Alpha Reliability

Computer Printouts of Cronbach's Alpha

SPSS and Cronbach's Alpha

Excel and Cronbach's Alpha

APA Discussion

Alpha Reliabilities from this Book

Reliabilities in the Real World

Validity

Face or Content Validity

Criterion Validity

Predictive

Concurrent

Retrospective

Construct or Factorial Validity

Problems with Measurement

Research Outside the Walls of Academia

Conclusion

When to Use a Survey

Do You Know What You Want to Ask?

Do You Really Need to Collect New Data?

Do Your Participants Know Anything or Will They Even Tell You?

STEP 1: Picking Your Questions

Nominal Level Questions

Ordinal Level Questions

Interval Level Questions

Ratio Level Questions

Open-Ended Questions

STEP 2: Creating Clear Instructions

STEP 3: Study Design

STEP 4: Data Processing and Analysis

STEP 5: Pilot Testing

Use Actual Survey Population Members

Anticipate Survey Context

Test Parts of the Survey

Determining a Pilot Sample Size

Ask Questions After Someone Completes the Survey

Interviewing

Face-to-Face Interviewing

Telephone Interviewing

Self-Administration

Mass Administration

Mailed Administration

Internet Administration

Advantages and Disadvantages of Self-Administered Surveying

Response Rate

Unit Nonresponse

Item Nonresponse

Effects of Nonresponse

Improving Response Rates

Semantic Equivalence

Conceptual Equivalence

Normative Equivalence

Simple Direct Translation

Modified Direct Translation

Translation/Back-Translation

Parallel Blind Technique

Random Probe

Question

Design

Setting

Participants

Specific Characteristics

Recruitment

Consent

Variables

Independent Variables

Dependent Variables

Hypotheses/Research Questions

Statistical Testing

Tentative Study Title

Principal Researcher(s)

Conclusion

Theory and Rationale

conceptualization

Operationalization

Coding schemes

Sampling

Training and Pilot Reliability

Introduction to Coding Book

Sample Coding

Coding of Initial Data

Initial Reliability

Retraining

Final Coding

Final Reliability

Tabulation and Reporting

Conclusion

What Are Experiments and Why Do We Do Them?

Rationale for Experimental Research

Aspects of Experimental Design

Random Assignment

Manipulation of the Independent Variable

Measurement of the Dependent Variable

Controlling an Experiment

Conducting an Experiment

Introducing the Experiment and Obtaining Consent

Random Assignment

Manipulate the Independent Variable

Measure the Dependent Variable

Debriefing

Threats to Experimental Validity

Historical flaw

Maturation

Testing flaw

Regression to the Mean

Selection Threat

Attrition

Preexperimental Designs

One-Shot Case Study

One-Group Pretest Posttest Design

Static Group Comparisons

Quasi-Experimental Designs

Pretest-Posttest Design

Time Series

Multiple Time Series

Switching Replications Design

True Experimental Designs

Pretest-Posttest Design

Two-Group Posttest-Only Design

Randomized Switching Replications Design

Solomon Four-Group Design

Conclusion

Human Generated Data

Machine Generated Data

Big Data Explained

Laney's 3Vs

Volume

Velocity

Variety

Four More V's

Veracity

Variability

Visualization

Value

Understanding the Cloud

The Cloud and Data

Big Data in the Cloud

Data Mining

Monitoring & Anomalies

Big Data Ethics

Privacy

Identity

Ownership

Reputation

Why Use a Sample?

Population

Sample

The Sampling Process

Selecting a Sample Design

Simple Random Samples

Stratified Random Samples

Cluster Samples

Systematic Samples

Nonprobability Samples

Convenience Samples

Volunteer Samples

Purposive Samples

Quota Samples

Network Sample

Common Sense Sample Recruiting

Ethical Recruitment

Conclusion

Hypotheses

One-Tailed Hypotheses

Two-Tailed Hypotheses

Research Questions

Directional Research Questions

Nondirectional Research Questions

Alternative & Null Hypotheses

Hypothesis Testing in the Case Study

Testing for Significance

Step 1: Set the Probability Level

Step 2: Conduct a Statistical Test

Step 3: Comparing Calculated and Critical Values

Effect Sizes

Understanding Error

The Confidence Interval

Power

Type I Error

Type II Error

Conclusion

The Benefits of Statistics

Descriptive Versus Inferential Statistics

Measures of Central Tendency

Mean

Median

Mode

Frequency Distributions

SPSS and Frequency Distributions

Excel and Frequency Distributions

Frequency Distributions and Charts

Skewness & Kurtosis

Range

Sum of Squares

Variance

Standard deviation

Conclusion

Case Study Introduction

Chi-Square Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to the Chi-Square Test of Independence

Computer Printouts of the Chi-Square Test of Independence

SPSS and Chi-Squares

Excel and Chi-Squares

APA Write-Up

Discussion of Findings

Post-Hoc APA Write-Up

Discussion of Brummans and Miller's Article

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

Conclusion

Case Study Introduction

Independent Samples t-Test Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to the Independent t-Test

Computer Printouts of the Independent t-Test

SPSS and t-Tests

Excel and t-Tests

APA Write-Up (SPSS)

APA Write-Up (Excel)

Discussion of Findings

APA Write-Up (SPSS)

Discussion

Discussion of the Weber, Fornash, Corrigan, and Neupauer Article

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

t-Tests outside Academia

Conclusion

Case Study Introduction

One-Way ANOVA Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to the One-Way ANOVA

Computer Printouts of the One-Way ANOVA

SPSS and One-Way Anovas

Multiple Comparison Tests

Excel and One-Way Anovas

APA Write-Up (Without Chart)

APA Write-Up (With Chart)

Discussion of Findings

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

Conclusion

Correlation Background Information

Types of Relationships

Correlation Not Causation

Correlation Assumptions

Computer Printouts of the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation

SPSS and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations

Excel and Pearson Product-Moment Correlations

APA Write-Up

Discussion

APA Write-Up

A Note about R

Discussion of the Chesebro Article

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

Conclusion

Case Study Introduction

Regression Background Information

Step-by-Step Approach to a Linear Regression

Computer Printouts of the Linear Regression

SPSS and Simple Linear Regressions

Excel and the Simple Linear Regression

APA Write-Up

Discussion

APA Write-Up

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

Article Purpose

Methodology

Results

Conclusion

Difference Tests

Factorial Anova

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Analysis of Covariance

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Multivariate Analysis of Variance

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Repeated Measures Anova

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Path Analysis

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Structural Equation Modeling

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Factor Analysis

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Canonical Correlations

Example

Explanation

APA Write-Up

Discussion

Conclusion

Writing a Discussion Section

Providing a Summary of Major Findings

Providing an Interpretation of Findings

Discussing the Relationship Between Findings and Previous Studies

Acknowledging Limitations

Discussing Implications and future directions

Divisions and Interest Groups

Submitting Research for Conference Review

Types of Conference Presentations

Paper Presentations

Poster Presentations

Scholar-to-Scholar Posters

Panel Discussions

Journal Review Process

Submission Process

Review Process

Writing for Business

Research and the General Public

Writing Statistical Stories

Infographics

Conclusion

Appendix A Qualitative Research

Appendix B Textbook Questionnaire

Appendix C Open-Source Statistical Software Alternatives