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In this book, legendary marketing expert Kotler and social marketing innovator Lee consider poverty from a radically different and powerfully new viewpoint: that of the marketer. The authors offer new insights into why so many anti-poverty programs fail and propose a new paradigm that can achieve far better results.
Philip Kotler is S.C. Johnson & Son Distinguished Professor of International Marketing at Northwestern’s Kellogg School of Management. Hailed as the “foremost expert on the strategic practice of marketing,” he is author of Marketing Management, the field’s definitive textbook (now in its 13th edition).
Kotler’s books also include Principles of Marketing, Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations, Marketing Places, Kotler on Marketing, Marketing Insights A to Z, Lateral Marketing, Social Marketing, Museum Strategies and Marketing, Standing Room Only, and Corporate Social Responsibility. His research encompasses social marketing, innovation, consumer marketing, business marketing, services marketing, distribution, and e-marketing. He has consulted with companies including IBM, Bank of America, Merck, GE, and Honeywell.
Nancy R. Lee, President of Social Marketing Services, Inc., has more than 25 years of practical marketing experience in private, nonprofit, and public sectors. An adjunct faculty member at the University of Washington and Seattle University, she teaches Marketing in the Public Sector, Social Marketing, and Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations.
Lee has coauthored four books with Philip Kotler, including Social Marketing: Improving the Quality of Life, Corporate Social Responsibility: Doing the Most Good for Your Company and Your Cause, and Marketing in the Public Sector: A Roadmap for Improved Performance.
Table of Contents
About the Authors
Understanding the Poverty Problem and Its Broad Solutions
Why Poverty Hurts Everyone
Who and How Many Are the Poor?
Where Do the Poor Live?
Why Are They Poor?
Why Should We Care About the Poor?
Examining a Barrel of Current Solutions
Major Strategies Proposed for Reducing Poverty
The Need for a Multilateral Strategy
Funding Organizations Active in Fighting Poverty
Fifty Current Specific Measures to Help the Poor
Unintended Consequences of Well-Intentioned Programs
Why Marketing Thinking Must Be Added to the Poverty Solution
Six Key Understandings About the Poor
Not What, But How
The Social Marketing Solution
What Is Involved in Trying to Change Someone's Behavior?
What Is Social Marketing?
What Poverty-Related Issues Can Benefit from Social Marketing?
How Does Social Marketing Differ from Commercial Marketing, Nonprofit Marketing, and Marketing in the Public Sector?
What Are the Main Principles of Social Marketing?
How Did the Social Marketing Concept Evolve?
Who Does Social Marketing?
What Are Other Ways to Impact Social Issues?
What Is the Social Marketer's Role in Influencing Upstream Factors?
Applying Marketing Perspectives and Solutions
Segmenting the Poverty Marketplace
Steps in Determining Target Market Priorities
The Traditional Theory and Practice of Market Segmentation
Segmenting by Level of Poverty
The Prevalence of and Problem with Macrosegmentation
The Case for Microsegmentation
Recommended Segmentation Strategies for Social Marketing Campaigns
Additional Considerations When Choosing Segmentation Variables
Evaluating and Choosing Target Market Priorities
Models for Evaluating Segments
Summary: Which Model Should Be Chosen?
Determining Desired Behavior Changes
What Are Desired Behaviors?
Behavior Change Theories
An Analytical Model for Selecting Behaviors
Understanding Barriers, Benefits, and the Competition for Change
Developing a Desired Positioning and Strategic Marketing Mix
The Strategic Marketing Mix (The Four Ps)
Ensuring an Integrated Approach
Developing a Social Marketing Plan
Background, Purpose, and Focus
Target Audience Profile
Marketing Objectives and Goals
Factors Influencing Adoption of the Behavior
Marketing Mix Strategies
Plan for Monitoring and Evaluation
Plan for Implementation and Campaign Management
The Public Sector's Role in Poverty Reduction
What Distinct and Critical Role Do Government Agencies Play in Reducing Poverty?
The U.S. Government's Role in Poverty Reduction
The Chinese Government's Role
The Bangladesh Government's Role
Overall View of the Government's Role in Poverty Reduction
Social Marketing in the Public Sector
The Nonprofit Sector's Role in Poverty Reduction
What Are Nonprofit Organizations, and Why Are They Necessary?
What Distinct and Critical Role Do NPOs Play in Reducing Poverty?
What Important NPOs Are Operating in the Poverty Area?
NPOs Within a Country Battle the Poverty Problem
Social Marketing in the Nonprofit Sector
The Private Sector's Role in Poverty Reduction
The Unique Role That the Private Sector Plays in Poverty Reduction
Business Behavior in the Past
Business Needs to Reform
Corporations Engage in the Poverty Problem
Company Efforts to Bring Down the Cost of Goods and Services
Social Marketing in the Private Sector
Getting the Three Sectors to Work Together
Developing a Three-Way Strategy
More About How the Three-Way Relationship Works
Back to the Three-Way Partnership
HIV/AIDS: Reversing the Tide Through Audience Segmentation Techniques
Sound Families: A Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Homeless Initiative in Washington State
Family Planning: A Poverty-Reduction Solution, Case Stories from Population Services International (PSI)
Agricultural Productivity: The Promising Case in Malawi
Sustainable Malaria Prevention: NetMark's Success Story in Africa
Example: Reducing Tuberculosis in Peru
New York City: Center for Economic Opportunity
Community Emergency Response and Disaster Mitigation in Central America: A Case Story from World Vision
Microsoft Helping Serbians and Roma in Hungary Reach Their Unlimited Potential
Conquering River Blindness: It Takes a Global Partnership
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.
Up and Out of Poverty PrefaceMany books have been written about the scourge of poverty. They offer different theories on poverty and different solutions. Some outline macro solutions, and others deal with micro solutions. Our book takes a very different look at the problem and offers a different model for helping the poor escape from poverty. We examine the power of "social marketing methodology" to abate the suffering of the poor. This preface describes the major approaches to fighting poverty and how our approach adds to the set of tools for helping the poor achieve a better life.Of all the problems facing mankinddisease, hard drugs, crime, corruption, armed conflict, global warming, nuclear risks, environmental sustainabilitypoverty is among the most persistent and shameful. Furthermore, poverty contributes greatly to the other problems. The poor suffer more from disease, and their hopeless condition leads some of the poor into lives of crime, hard drugs, and armed conflict. This means that the cost of poverty far exceeds the cost that the poor themselves bear. Poverty pours its poison on the rest of mankind.Until the nineteenth century, the poor received little attention. Poverty was seen as inevitable. Governments and do-gooders could do little about it. The Industrial Revolution exacerbated the problem by attracting poor rural peasants to the cities in search of work. This led to the establishment of shantytowns and poorhouses. The plight of the poor became more visible. Caring researchers such as Beatrice and Sidney Webb in the U.K. started to count the poor and write about their plight. Charles Dickens, in Oliver Twist , vividly dramatized the conditions and exploitation of the poor.The concept of creating antipoverty programs began in the nineteenth century and continues today. One sixth of the world's population earns less than $1 a day. Another 2 billion of the world's 6 billion people earn less than $2 a day. In the year 2000, the United Nations outlined its multilateral plan for reducing world poverty. The United Nations formulated the Millennium Development Goals (MDG)eight goals with eighteen accompanying targets, designed to significantly reduce poverty levels by 2015. Target 1 was to cut in half between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day. The goal is ambitious and is not likely to be achieved, given the tumultuous new circumstances of rising food and energy costs and continued armed conflict in the world.Experts have put forth different theories of the causes of the problem and therefore have advocated different measures to cure the problem. We can distinguish between experts who see poverty as having a major basic cause and those who see many causal factors at work.The simplest theory is that the poor have brought the condition on themselves. The assertion is that many are shiftless, lazy, and uneducated and prefer to live on handouts rather than exerting effort to lift themselves out of poverty. The implied solution from this view is to either find a way to change their attitude and behavior or leave them in their penurious state. Granted, some of the poor are responsible for their condition. However, there is evidence that most of the poor would be ready and willing to escape their penurious conditions if they could find employment and have a decent plac