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Before Sir Arthur Evans, the principal object of Greek prehistoric archaeology was the reconstruction of history in relation to myth. European travellers to Greece viewed its picturesque ruins as the gateway to mythical times, while Heinrich Schliemann, at the end of the nineteenth century, allegedly uncovered at Troy and Mycenae the legendary cities of the Homeric epics. It was Evans who, in his controversial excavations at Knossos, steered Aegean archaeology away from Homer towards the broader Mediterranean world. Yet in so doing he is thought to have done his own inventing, recreating the Cretan Labyrinth via the Bronze Age myth of the Minotaur. Nanno Marinatos challenges the entrenched idea that Evans was nothing more than a flamboyant researcher who turned speculation into history. She argues that Evans was a proper archaeologist who used scientific observation and classification. Evans' combination of anthropology, comparative religion and analysis of cultic artefacts enabled him to develop a bold new method which the author calls 'mental anthropology'. This method enabled him to develop remarkable ideas about Minoan religion that are now being vindicated as startling new evidence comes to light.
Nanno Marinatos is Professor of Classics at the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA. Her publications include Minoan Kingship and the Solar Goddess: A Near Eastern Koine, Minoan Religion: Ritual, Image, and Symbol and The Naked Goddess and Mistress of Animals in Early Greek Religion. Author residency – Chicago, Illinois, USA.
Table of Contents
Preface PART I: INTRODUCTION 1. A Portrait 2. Personal Memories 3. Truth and Happiness PART II: TREE AND PILLAR CULT 4. Evans and E. B. Tylor 5. The Mental Anthropology behind Tree and Pillar Cult 6. The Pantheon on the Mycenae Ring 7. The Artistic Side of Evans PART III: MOURNING KYBELE: ARTHUR EVANS AND JAMES FRAZER 8. Kybele and the Young Resurgent God 9. The Tomb and the Rites 10. Communion and the Dying God: William Robertson Smith and James Frazer 11. The Oriental Goddess 12. Tree Cult and a Wounded Goddess from Thera? PART IV: THE WHIRLIGIG OF TIME: THE NARRATIVE OF THE PALACE OF MINOS 13. A Single Story 14. The End of Knossos PART V: MONOTHEISM 15. Revision of the Paradigm 16. The Unity of the Minoan Cosmos 17. The Unity of the Goddess 18. The Cow of Heaven 19. The Mother of the Young God 20. The Debate over Monotheism and Polytheism 21. The Challenge of Nilsson PART VI: THE RING OF NESTOR 22. A Clever Forger? 23. The Find Circumstances of the Ring of Nestor 24. Evans's Interpretation. An Egyptian Prototype for the Ring? 25. The Tree of Life and the Golden Bough PART VII: THE RING OF MINOS 26. The Discovery of the Ring of Minos 27. Emile Gilliéron as the Mediator; The Two Copies 28. Evans's Interpretation of the Minos Ring 29. Theft of the Herakleion Museum PART VIII: THE FINAL YEARS. EVANS'S RESTORATIONS AND HIS VISION OF KNOSSOS 30. The Vision of the Palace and Its Reception 31. The First Phase of Restorations 32. Two Earthquakes (1926, 1930) 33. The Responses of Georg Karo and Spyridon Marinatos 34. The Third Earthquake (1935) and the Fate of the Herakleion Museum PART IX: SIR ARTHUR EVANS AND SPYRIDON MARINATOS 35. A Quarrel and an Apology 36. The Excavation of the Temple Tomb 37. Spyridon Marinatos's Excavations in Crete 1932-36 PART X: EVANS'S LAST VISIT TO CRETE 38. Honorary Citizen 39. Nostalgia 40. A Troubled Island PART XI: SUNT LACRIMAE RERUM. THE WAR AND THE DEATH OF EVANS 41. The Last Exhibition of Minoan Civilization 1936 42. Greece on the Eve of the War 43. Two Intellectuals under Hitler's Germany: Erich Bessel Hagen and Georg Karo 44. The War and the Death of Evans PART XII: APPENDICES 1. Letters between Evans and Spyridon Marinatos 2. Letters between Edith Eccles and Spyridon Marinatos 3. The Relationship of John Pendlebury and Spyridon Marinatos 4. A Letter of Spyridon Marinatos to Humfry Payne 5. Letters of Priest Nikolaos Pollakes to Spyridon Marinatos and his wife Maria Evangelidou