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Women have achieved or exceeded parity with men in most academic fields but continue to be outnumbered in the physical sciences, engineering, and math. For many equity activists, this imbalance constitutes a serious problem, even a "crisis," necessitating federal oversight to prevent gender bias in higher education and scientific industries. Congress, the Obama administration, and many science and education leaders are considering dramatic measures to improve women's prospects in the sciences. But what if claims of gender bias have been exaggerated?
Table of Contents
Introduction: The Science on Women in Science
Why So Few Women in Math and Science?
Sex Differences in the General Population
Female Advantage in Empathy
Culture and Biology
Gender, Math, and Science
Gender Differences in Intrinsic Aptitude for Math and Science?
Gender Differences in Intrinsic Motivation for Mathematics and Science?
Toward an Understanding of the Gender Gap
Conclusions and Prospects
A History of Structural Barriers to Women in Science: From Stone Walls to Invisible Walls
Renaissance Men and Science
Renaissance Women and Science
Access to Education for American Women in Science
Employment for Women Scientists
Receiving Appropriate Recognition for Scientific Accomplishments
Addressing Gender Inequality in Science: A Structural Approach
Sex, Science, and the Economy
Low Numbers: Stereotypes and the Underrepresentation of Women in Math and Science
Stereotype Threat in the Real World
"Controversial" Issues in Stereotype Threat
Conclusion: The Grand Experiment
Stereotype Threat: A Case of Overclaim Syndrome?
The Skill Baseline
The Scope of ST's Influence
Cherry-Picking: The Selective Operation of ST
ST Study Design: Answering the Unanswered Questions
ST and the Problem of Pervasive Disparity
An Evolutionary Twist on Sex, Mathematics, and the Sciences
Evolution, Mathematics, and the Sciences
Cognition and the Brain: Sex Matters
Uncertainty in the Field
Certainty at the NAS
Some Relevant Brain Data
Offense and Myth
Women, Men, and the Sciences
The Biology of Sex Determination
Sex Differences in Cognitive and Behavioral Functions
Cross-Generational and Cross-Cultural Comparisons
Behavioral Sex Difference in Infants
Biological Influences in Early Life on Behavioral Sex Differences
Individual Differences in Hormone Levels and Cognitive Abilities
Fluctuations within Individuals in Hormones and Cognition
Sex Differences in the Brain
Men and Women: Values, Interests, and Talents
Talents and Achievements
Facts and Fictions about Women in Science
Appendix to Chapter 9
Conclusion: Why It All Matters and What Is To Be Done
About the Authors
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