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From the Netherlands to the Ottoman Empire, to Japan and India, this groundbreaking volume confronts the complex and diverse problem of the formation of fiscal states in Eurasia between 1500 and 1914. This series of country case studies from leading economic historians reveals that distinctive features of the fiscal state appeared across the region at different moments in time as a result of multiple independent but often interacting stimuli such as internal competition over resources, European expansion, international trade, globalisation and war. The essays offer a comparative framework for re-examining the causes of economic development across this period and show, for instance, the central role that the more effective fiscal systems of Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries played in the divergence of east and west as well as the very different paths to modernisation taken across the world.
Table of Contents
Introduction: the rise of the fiscal state in Eurasia from a global, comparative and transnational perspective
North Atlantic Europe
Long-term trends in the fiscal history of the Netherlands, 1515-1913
Taxation in the Habsburg Low Countries and Belgium, 1579-1914
The rise of the fiscal state in France, 1500-1914
The politics of British taxation, from the Glorious Revolution to the Great War
Central and Eastern Europe
Finances and power in the German state system
Financing an empire: the Austrian composite monarchy, 1650-1848
The Russian fiscal state, 1600-1914
South Atlantic Europe and the Mediterranean
From pioneer mercantile state to ordinary fiscal state: Portugal, 1498-1914
Spain: from composite monarchy to nation state, 1492-1914. An exceptional case?
Republics and principalities in Italy
The formation of fiscal states in Italy: the Papal States
The evolution of fiscal institutions in the Ottoman empire, 1500-1914
Continuation and efficiency of the Chinese fiscal state, 700 BC-1911 AD
Taxation and good governance in China, 1500-1914
The rise of a Japanese fiscal state
Fiscal states in Mughal and British India
Afterword: reflexions on fiscal foundations and contexts for the formation of economically effective Eurasian states from the rise of Venice to the Opium War
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