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The sixth edition of Models of Teaching is written to be the core of the theory/practice aspect of the K-12 teacher education program. It covers the rationale and research on the major models of teaching and applies the models by using scenarios and examples of instructional materials. Because it deals with the major psychological and philosophical approaches to teaching and schooling, Models of Teaching provides a direct link between educational foundations and student teaching. Therefore, the book can provide substantial support to programs taking a reflective teaching or constructivist approach.
Table of Contents
James M. Wolf
PART I FRAME OF REFERENCE We have used the knowledge base about teaching to identify and create models of teaching and learning that increase student capability. As authors, we succeed by helping our readers inquire more powerfully into our common knowledge base, into their own learning, and into the learning of their students.
CHAPTER 1 BEGINNING THE INQUIRY Creating Communities of Expert Learners We open by exploring how to create communities of learners and provide them with a repertoire of models of learning.
CHAPTER 2 MODELS OF TEACHING AND LEARNING Where do They Come From and How Are They Used? From the earliest written records in all civilizations we see evidence of the search for good ways of teaching. Here we consider the "modern era" models, in which the search by teachers, behavioral scientists, therapists, and curriculum designers has been accompanied by research to refine and test the products of the inquiry. We classify the models we have selected from our search into four families: social, information-processing, personal, and behavioral systems.
PART II THE SOCIAL FAMILY OF MODELS We study the social models first because developing the community of learners is critical to all teaching. We find that the social models are designed to achieve serious academic objectives, including the study of social values, public policy, and resolving conflict, for which the social models are eminently suited.
CHAPTER 3 PARTNERS IN LEARNING From Dyads to Group Investigation We study the "generic" social models, from ones in which students learn to be partners in learning to the very powerful and generally useful group investigation model.
CHAPTER 4 ROLE PLAYING Studying Social Behavior and Values The study of social behavior and personal values is directly approached through the study of interpersonal problems, the tasks of building personal understanding, and the skills of integrative interaction.
CHAPTER 5 JURISPRUDENTIAL INQUIRY Learning to Think about Social Policy The students learn to analyze cases representing important social issues and to think through how public policy often requires the balancing of several values that are difficult to uphold simultaneously.
CHAPTER 6 PERSONALITY AND LEARNING STYLES Adapting to Individual Differences How do we teach so that a variety of personalities can flourish in the same learning environment? We study conceptual systems theory, which enables us to study our students' learning styles and to modulate our teaching to ensure that they all can grow.
CHAPTER 7 INQUIRY ON SOCIAL MODELS Learning about Social Learning During the last 20 years, several active teams of researchers have generated a large number of studies of the various social models. This knowledge can guide us in our use of the social models and provides clear evidence of their efficacy so that we can increase the power of our students by teaching them to learn cooperatively.
PART III THE INFORMATION-PROCESSING FAMILY OF MODELS
CHAPTER 8 THE BASIC INDUCTIVE MODEL Collecting, Organizing, Manipulating, and Using Data Forming concepts through categorizing may be the basis of higher-order thinking. We study the basic model that leads students to learn through classification and teaches them to collect and organize data and generate and test hypotheses based on their inquiry.
CHAPTER 9 ATTAINING CONCEPTS Sharpening the Basic Thinking Skills Students can not only form concepts by classifying data, but they can also attain concepts formed by scholars. The concept attainment model is designed to arrange data so that important concepts can be learned efficiently. In classroom practice, the concept attainment model complements the basic inductive model by enabling students to attain as well as to form concepts.
CHAPTER 10 SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY AND INQUIRY TRAINING The Art of Making Inferences From the time of Aristotle, educators have been seeking ways of taking students into the sciences as fields of inquiry, helping them study with the methods of science. We explore several models that are built around the structures and inquiry strategies of the sciences. Research from the last few years has continued to improve our ability to help students learn scientific thinking an to explore not only the physical and biological worlds but also the social and literary worlds.
CHAPTER 11 MEMORIZATION Getting the Facts Straight In many circles, memorization developed a bad reputation because poor methods--generally the rote repetition of poorly understood material--were used so widely. Systematic studies over the last two decades have revolutionized mnemonics, providing teachers and students with some solid models that dramatically expand student capacity to learn both complex and simple content. Key features are the development of of the models and skill in using them. Thus, the term metacognition, referring to the understanding of the models of learning, has entered our vocabulary.
CHAPTER 12 SYNECTICS Enhancing Creative Thought Out of industrial psychology have come ways of teaching people of all ages how to use analogies to help define and solve problems. Again, students are taught the metacognitions of the model--how to use metaphors to enhance writing, expand conceptual understanding, and approach problems in a wide variety of content areas.
CHAPTER 13 LEARNING FROM PRESENTATIONS Advance Organizers How can learning from lectures, readings, references, and databases become active rather than passive? The pioneering work of David Ausubel has led to a model whereby students learn structures of ideas, which they use to understand and master material from lectures and readings.
CHAPTER 14 THE DEVELOPING INTELLECT Cognitive Development, Learning Styles, and Adjustable Models We use the Piagetian framework for analyzing intellectual development. We study our students and consider how the information-processing models can be adapted to fit the learning styles of students in various stages of development.
CHAPTER 15 INQUIRY ON INFORMATION-PROCESSING MODELS Learning about Thinking We inquire into the solid, and gradually growing, research underlying the information-processing models. We find that a wide range of objectives can be achieved through those models as the students learn the tools of inquiry available through them.
PART IV THE PERSONAL FAMILY OF MODELS The learners do the learning. How we generate the kind of self-directed independence that enables students to take charge of their development has been the subject of important lines of inquiry for centuries. We visit two models that have emerged in their contemporary form from the search for ways of developing self-understanding and self-esteem.
CHAPTER 16 NONDIRECTIVE TEACHING The Learner at the Center For many years, Carl Rogers was the most prominent spokesperson for student-centered models of learning. Creating the nurturant relationship that releases personal energy is at the heart of these models. Here we extend nondirective teaching and blend it with other models to create the personal dimension of the learning environment.
CHAPTER 17 CONCEPTS OF SELF Modeling Rich States of Growth Abraham Maslow brought the term self-actualization into the language of teaching and therapy. The goal is to enable all students to create and reach toward their personal stars--living so as to grow--and grow, and grow.
CHAPTER 18 INQUIRY ON PERSONAL MODELS We examine just a few of the studies that link personal and academic goals. Essentially, the researchers and developers test the thesis that as self-esteem and self-actualization rise, so does the competence to educate oneself.
PART V THE BEHAVIORAL SYSTEMS FAMILY OF MODELS All the creators of models of teaching are optimists, but none more so than the behavioral systems designers. They see us as a collection of learned behaviors that can always be enhanced. Whatever behaviors we have learned that do not work well, such as phobias, we can unlearn; we can then substitute productive patterns for those behaviors.
CHAPTER 19 MASTERY LEARNING AND PROGRAMMED INSTRUCTION Breaking down complex objectives into smaller pieces, providing opportunities to learn and frequent knowledge of results, the developers of these models take the position that the complicated just takes a little longer.
CHAPTER 20 DIRECT INSTRUCTION From social learning theory and the study of effective teaching comes a tight design paradigm in which tasks and reinforcements are used consistently.
CHAPTER 21 LEARNING FROM SIMULATIONS Training and Self-Training Simulations take us where we cannot go, such as to the halls of international policymakers and into the space shuttle. They also enable us to practice complex skills, like flying and driving, in safe environments where we can correct our mistakes without real-life crashes.
CHAPTER 22 INQUIRY ON BEHAVIORAL MODELS Tips for Teaching We look at some of the tasks of teaching and inquire into some classroom management strategies from the behavioral stance.
PART VI SYNTHESIZING AND APPLYING MODELS OF TEACHING We create multimodel curricula and schools and study how they can create equity and bring high states of growth to all learners.
CHAPTER 23 EQUITY Gender, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Background We study how demographic factors often affect learning and how to use models of teaching to create equal achievement where inequity has so often been the case.
CHAPTER 24 CREATING CURRICULA The Conditions of Learning Robert Gagne has been the instructional design master of the last half-century. We study his principles and use them to assemble multiple-models curricula. Global education and the teaching of literacy to "overage" beginning readers are our examples.
CHAPTER 25 LEARNING STYLES AND MODELS OF TEACHING Making Discomfort Productive To learn is to change, and change is frequently uncomfortable. We study how to lead students into more complex learning styles and how to create "optimal mismatches" between their current behavior and the potential for creating greater power and integrated capacity for them as learners.
CHAPTER 26 NATURE AND NURTURE The Brain and Its Environment The study of the physiological structures and processes of learning--the nature and functioning of our neurological system--is receiving much attention these days. We reflect particularly on the optimism that is resulting, from the ways that schools can increase learning ability to the enriching role of continued complex learning throughout life.
CHAPTER 27 ENVIRONMENTS FOR STUDENTS SERIOUSLY AT RISK A Multiple-Models Approach We visit a school for students who are in trouble, socially and academically, and consider how that school shows us how a convergence of models can impact students many would have given up as lost.
CHAPTER 28 TEACHING OURSELVES TO LEARN The Professional Learning Community We close with our own use of models of teaching to enable ourselves to increase our teaching repertoire. We find that we need to apply all four families of models and that, when we do so, we can learn new curricular and instructional tools throughout our careers.
Robert J. Schaefer
APPENDIX PEER COACHING GUIDES These guides are designed to facilitate planning for practice with nine of the most commonly used models of teaching and to provide formats for observing demonstration and peer practice.