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The only EMS-specific research book, this resource is the perfect guide for all EMS professionals, whether a field provider, educator, administrator, or student. Research has always been essential in scientific documentation. As its role in the EMS field increasingly becomes an important issue, this is the guide to work you through the process. Beginning with the reasons why research is essential, through the design and actual research process, An Introduction to EMS Research uses a step-by-step approach to guide readers through a complete overview. Written by an interdisciplinary team of respected researchers in the field, features include: bull; bull; A highly readable presentation of information. bull; Ongoing end-of-chapter scenarios that increase in detail throughout. bull; A complete chapter on data analysis. bull; A step-by-step approach that walks the user through the process so they can become comfortable with the correct procedures.
Lawrence Brown, EMT-P began his career as a volunteer with the Perquimans County Rescue Squad in Hertford, North Carolina. In 1991 he joined the Department of Emergency Medicine at East Carolina University as an EMS instructor, and he quickly became involved in a number of research projects. Since then, getting EMS providers involved in research work has become one of his primary missions. In 1998 Lawrence moved to Syracuse, New York, where he spends too much time working and not enough time sailing.
Liz Criss, RN, CEN, MEd began her career as a research assistant in the Section of Emergency Medicine at the University of Arizona in 1983. She moved into prehospital research in 1984 and has devoted the last 17 years to prehospital research, education, and system development. In addition to prehospital research, she works with the Emergency Department of University Medical Center. Liz still lives in Arizona with her husband of 25 years, two grown children, her dogs, and a small flock of pink flamingos.
Heramba Prasad, MD, FACEP has had extensive EMS experience in three different states: Illinois, New York, and North Carolina. He has published a number of EMS-related papers and one previous textbook. In 1997, after 10 years as an academic emergency physician, Heramba took a brief hiatus to work in the community hospital setting. In 1999 he saw the error of his ways and moved to central New York, where he again practices academic emergency medicine, owns a horse farm, and claims to be a gentleman farmer.
Table of Contents
About the Authors
SECTION 1 BASICS
Why Do We Need EMS Research?
The Research Process
SECTION 2 DECIDING WHAT TO STUDY
Choosing a Research Topic
Conducting a Literature Search
Defining the Question and Formulating a Hypothesis
SECTION 3 DESIGNING THE STUDY
Determining the Type of Study
Developing the Methods
Consulting a Statistician and Performing a Power Calculation
SECTION 4 INTERACTIONS WITH OTHERS
Ethical Considerations and IRB Approval
Getting Colleagues on Board
SECTION 5 CONDUCTING THE RESEARCH
Conducting a Pilot Study
Implementing the Study and Collecting Data
Describing and Analyzing the Data
Reporting the Findings
Appendix 1 Frequently Asked Questions
Appendix 2 Glossary
Appendix 3 Mentor Organizations and Scientific Meetings
Appendix 4 EMS-Related Journals
Appendix 5 Literature Search Software
Appendix 6 Statistical Analysis Software
Appendix 7 Cited Literature and Suggested Reading
Many people never read the preface to a book. Having now written a book, we have a better understanding of the role of the preface. We'll probably read more of them; we hope you read this one. This will notbe the last research book you ever need to buy. Any one of the chapters in this book could, in and of itself, be the subject of an entire text. Some could be the subject for an entire college course, an entire semester of study, or even an entire graduate program. This book is not designed to teach everybody everything that there is to know about EMS research. It is a primer, an introduction to the research process, particularly in our area of interest: EMS. While it is intended as a guide for the EMS professional--whether a field provider, educator, or administrator--who has an interest in research, it may also be useful to non-EMS individuals. This book is intended to provide a general understanding of the research process, to provide pearls of wisdom about and to identify pitfalls in EMS investigations, and to help the fledgling investigator begin the journey to becoming an EMS researcher. It is also designed to help experienced researchers--whether physicians, social scientists, basic scientists, or others--who are new to the realm of EMS research. In writing this book, we struggled with our own grammatical shortcomings. We would have preferred to address you, the reader, directly: to tell you what you should do, how you should do it, and what to look out for. However, it must be recognized that appropriate grammar does not allow for the use of such a direct, personal approach. Thus, the authors have written this text in the distant but proper voice that one might find quite difficult to read. We're not very good at that, and we apologize in advance. If you truly want to become an EMS researcher, there is at least one thing more important than buying and reading this book. You must have a good mentor. While this book can provide you with basic information about the research process and some insight into the world of EMS research, becoming a researcher is not an endeavor you should undertake alone. You would have never considered becoming an EMT by simply reading Brady's Emergency Careand then hitting the streets. You can't become a researcher that way, either. Finding a mentor isn't as hard as you might think, and it's one of the issues addressed in the appendixes of this book. Welcome to the world of EMS research. It's been our home for many years, it's a great place, and we love it here. We hope you will, too. -- Lawrence, Liz, and Heramba