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This book describes innovative techniques to study catalysts and reaction mechanisms, helping chemists improve the performance of their reactions and the efficiency (through reduced materials and waste) of catalyst preparation. It explains both the scope and limitations of specific techniques, including the characterization of the electronic and structural properties of catalysts using XAFS (X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectroscopy); techniques for structural characterization based on X-ray diffraction and scattering; for microscopy and morphological studies; for studying the interaction of adsorbates with catalyst surfaces (Raman spectroscopy, NMR, moderate pressure XPS); and mixed techniques.
JOSÉ A. RODRIGUEZ, PhD, is Senior Scientist at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Chemistry of SUNY Stony Brook. Dr. Rodriguez's research efforts center on the application of new techniques for in-situ characterization to study catalysts used for the production of clean fuels.
JONATHAN C. HANSON, PhD, is retired from the Department of Chemistry at Brookhaven National Laboratory. He continues to develop techniques to study catalytic processes under operando conditions at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source.
PETER J. CHUPAS, PhD, is Group Leader of the Structural Science Group in the X-ray Science Division of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Dr. Chupas develops new in-situ techniques and sample environments to characterize catalysts.
Table of Contents
Introduction: Goals and Challenges for the In-situ Characterization of Heterogeneous Catalysts
Jose A. Rodriguez (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Jonathan C. Hanson (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Peter J. Chupas (Argonne National Laboratory).
Chapter 1: QEXAFS in Catalysis Research: Principles, Data Analysis and Applications
Anatoly Frenkel (Yeshiva University), Syed Khalid (Brookhaven National Lab), Jonathan C. Hanson (Brookhaven National Lab), Maarten Nachtegaal (Paul Scherrer Institute)
Christian G. Schroer (Technical University Dresden), J.D. Grunwaldt (DTU, Denmark)
Chapter 3: Energy dispersive EXAFS: principles, and application, in heterogeneous catalysis
Andy Dent (Diamond Synchrotron), Mark Newton (ESRF)
Chapter 4: In-situ Powder X-ray Diffraction in Heterogeneous Catalysis
Jonathan C. Hanson (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Poul Norby (Technical University of Denmark)
Chapter 5: Pair Distribution Function Analysis of High Energy X-ray Scattering Data
Karena Chapman (Argonne National Laboratory), Peter J. Chupas (Argonne National Laboratory)
Chapter 6: Neutron Scattering for In-situ Characterization of Catalysts
Ashfia Huq (Oak Ridge National Laboratory), Wei-Ren Chen (Oak Ridge National Laboratory)
Chapter 7: Visualization of Surface Structures of Heterogeneous Catalysts under Reaction Conditions or during Catalysis with High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy
Franklyn (Feng) Tao (University of Notre Dame), Yingchun Ye (University of Notre Dame), Yuan Zhu (University of Notre Dame), Shiran Zhang (University of Notre Dame), Lei Wang (University of Notre Dame), Fang Cheng (University of Notre Dame)
Chapter 8: In-situ Infrared Spectroscopy on Well-defined Model Catalysts
Dario Stacchiola (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Kumudu Mudiyanselage (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
Chapter 9: Infrared Spectroscopy on Powder Catalysts
Eli Stavitski (Brookhaven National Laboratory)
Chapter 10: Structural Characterization of Catalysts by Operando Raman Spectroscopy
Miguel A. Bañares (Institute of Catalysis- Madrid), Gerhard Mestl (Süd-Chemie AG)
Chapter 11: In-situ Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of powder catalysts
Angelika Bruckner (Leibniz Institute of Catalysis)
Chapter 12: Application of Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy for the In-situ Investigation of Heterogeneous Catalytic Reactions
David Starr (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Hendrik Bluhm (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Zhi Liu (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory), Axel Knop-Gericke (Max Planck Institute), Michael Hävecker (BESI-II)
Chapter 13: Combined X-ray diffraction and absorption spectroscopy in Catalysis Research: Techniques and Applications
Jonathan C. Hanson (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Anatoly Frenkel (Yeshiva University)
Chapter 14: Combining Infrared Spectroscopy with X-ray Techniques for Interrogating Heterogeneous Catalysts.
Mark Newton (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility), Marcos Fernandez-Garcia (Catalysis Institute of CSIC, Madrid)
Chapter 15: XRD-Raman and Modulation Excitation Spectroscopy
Wouter van Beek (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility), Atsushi Urakawa (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility), Marco Milanesio (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility)
Chapter 16: Catalyst Imaging using Synchrotron-based Multi-technique Approaches
Andew M. Beale (Utrecht University), Javier Ruiz-Martinez (Utrecht University), Bert Weckhuysen (Utrecht University)