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Maps and Illustrations
PRE-ROMAN ITALY AND THE RISE OF ROME TO 264 B.C.
1. Roman History: Its Geographic and Human Foundations
Introduction to Roman History
The Site of Rome
The Peoples and Cultures of Pre-Roman Italy
The Peoples of Italy ca. 750 to 400 B.C.
2. Phoenicians, Greeks, and Etruscans in Pre-Roman Italy
Tyre and Its Colonies
Decline of the Greek Cities in Italy and Sicily
The Land of the Etruscans
Sources for Etruscan History
Etruscan Economic Life
Etruscan Cities and Their Sociopolitical Organization
Women and the Etruscan Family
Etruscan Culture and Religion
Etruscan Art and Architecture
The Role of the Etruscans in Roman History
The Fate of the Etruscans
3. Early Rome to 500 B.C.
The Ancient Literary Tradition and Its Sources
Reconstructing Early Roman History
The Early Roman State
4. Early Roman Society, Religion, and Values
The Principle of Hierarchy
Patrons and Clients
Slaves and Freedmen
Roman Names and the Gens
Patrician and Nonpatrician Gentes
Classes in Roman Society
The Openness of Early Roman Society to Outsiders
Early Roman Religion
The State and Religion
The Values of Early Roman Society
5. The Evolution of the Roman Republican Constitution, 509 to 287 B.C.
Sources of Information for Early Republican History
From Kingship to Republic
The Early Form of the Republic
The Priesthoods and Priestly Colleges
Social and Political Conflicts, 509 to 287 B.C.
Creation of Separate Plebeian Identity and Institutions
The Decemvirs and the Laws of the Twelve Tables
A New Period of Reform
The Creation of a New Nobility
Further Changes in Public Offices
The Oligarchic Realities of the Roman Republican Constitution after 287 B.C.
6. The Roman Conquest of Italy and Its Impact, 509 to 264 B.C.
Conflicts with Immediate Neighbors
The Gallic Sack of Rome
Up from the Ashes
Initial Conquests in Central Italy
The Roman System of Alliances and Citizen Communities
The Final Conquest of Central Italy
The Pyrrhic Wars and the Conquest of Southern Italy
The Economic, Social, and Cultural Impact of Roman Expansion in Italy by 264 B.C.
How to Explain Rome’s Conquests
THE HIGH POINT OF THE ROMAN REPUBLIC, 264 to 133 B.C.
7. The First Punic War, Northern Italy, and Illyrian Pirates, 264 to 219 B.C.
Sources for Roman History from 264 to 133 B.C.
A New Chapter in Rome’s Expansion
Sicily and the Outbreak of the First Punic War, 264 B.C.
Initial Carthaginian Setbacks, 263 and 262 B.C.
Expansion of the War
A Titanic Struggle, 260 to 241 B.C.
The Truceless War and Roman Trickery, 241 to 238 B.C.
Roman Conquests in Northern Italy
The Pirates of Illyria, 229 and 228 B.C.
Renewed War with the Gauls, 225–220 B.C.
Pirates Again, 220 to 219 B.C.
Expansion of the War 94
Rome’s Rise Surveyed
8. War with Hannibal: The Second Punic War, 218 to 201 B.C.
Carthaginian Recovery after 238 B.C.
The Ebro Treaty
Hannibal and the Outbreak of the Second Punic War
Causes of the Second Punic War
Hannibal’s War Strategy
Roman War Plans
Hannibal’s March to the Alps
Hannibal’s Early Victories, 218 and 217 B.C.
Fabius Maximus, Cunctator, 217 B.C.
The Battle of Cannae, 216 B.C.
The Roman Recovery
The First Macedonian War, 215 to 205 B.C.
The War in Spain, 218 to 211 B.C.
The Battle at the Metaurus and the Death of Hasdrubal, 207 B.C.
The End Approaches
The Battle of Zama (Naraggara), 202 B.C.
Reasons for Roman Success
The Fate of Hannibal
9. Roman Imperialism East and West, 200 to 133 B.C.
Roman Imperialism in the East
Antiochus III (the Great) of Syria and Philip V of Macedon
The Second Macedonian War, 200 to 196 B.C.
The Aggressions of Antiochus III (the Great), 196 to 192 B.C.
The War With Antiochus III (the Great), 192 to 188 B.C.
The Third Macedonian War, 171 to 168/7 B.C.
Rome and the Hellenistic East After Pydna (168 B.C.)
Roman Imperialism in the West, 200 to 133 B.C.
Successes and Failures in Spain
The Third Punic War, 149 to 146 B.C.
The Viriathic and Numantine Wars in Spain, 151 to 133 B.C.
10. The Transformation of Roman Life, 264 to 133 B.C.
The Impact of War and Overseas Expansion on Small Farmers
The Growth of Trade, Cities, Industry, and Commerce
Coinage and the Monetization of the Economy
Social Change and Discontent
11. The Great Cultural Synthesis, 264 to 133 B.C.
Architecture and Art
Specialization after Ennius
THE WORLD OF THE LATE REPUBLIC, 133 to 30 B.C.
12. The Gracchi and the Struggle over Reforms, 133 to 121 B.C.
Sources for the Period of the Gracchi, 133 to 121 B.C.
Mounting Problems 152
The Tribuneship of Tiberius Gracchus, 133 B.C.
The Land Commission and Its Impact
Rome’s Allies and the Death of Scipio
Gaius Gracchus,Tribune of the Plebs, 123 to 122 B.C.
The Reforms of Gaius Gracchus
The Fall and Death of Gaius Gracchus
The Popularis Political Legacy of the Gracchi
13. The Breakdown of the System and the Career of Marius, 121 to 88 B.C.
Sources for the Period from 121 to 88 B.C.
Populares and Optimates
The Senatus Consultum Ultimum
Post-Gracchan Land Legislation
The Imperial Background to Domestic Affairs
The Popularis Rise of Gaius Marius (157 to 86 B.C.)
The Slave Revolt in Sicily, 104 to 100 B.C.
Piracy in the Eastern Mediterranean
The Political Fall of Marius
A Decade of Optimate Domination
The Explosive Reforms of M. Livius Drusus the Younger, 91 B.C.
The Italian, or Social,War, 90 to 88 B.C.
The Aftermath of the Social War
14. Civil War and Sulla’s Reactionary Settlement, 88 to 78 B.C.
Sources for the Years 88 to 78 B.C.
Mithridates VI Eupator (134 to 63 B.C.)
The Rise of Sulla (138 to 78 B.C.)
Cinna’s Consulship, 87 B.C.
Marius and His Reign of Terror
The Significance of Marius
Cinna’s Time (Cinnanum Tempus)
Sulla and the East, 87 to 84 B.C.
Sulla’s Return to Italy, 83 to 82 B.C.
Sulla’s Reign of Terror, 82 B.C.
Sulla’s Dictatorship and Political Reforms
The Failure of Sulla
15. Personal Ambitions: The Failure of Sulla’s Optimate Oligarchy, 78 to 60 B.C.
Sources for Roman History from 78 to 30 B.C.
The Rise of Pompey the Great (106 to 48 B.C.) 78 to 71 B.C.
The Great (Third) Mithridatic War (74/3 to 63 B.C.) and Lucullus’ Bid for Glory, 74 to 66 B.C.
Crassus Seeks Advantage in the Slave War against Spartacus in Italy, 73 to 71 B.C.
The Consulship of Pompey and Crassus, 70 B.C.
Cicero Gains Fame in the Trial of Verres, 70 B.C.
Tribunes Make Their Marks and Pompey Takes Control of the East, 67 to 62 B.C.
Rome in the Absence of Pompey
After Pompey’s Return, 62 to 60 B.C.
16. Caesar Wins and Is Lost, 60 to 44 B.C.
Caesar Partners with Pompey and Crassus, 60 to 58 B.C.
Gaul and the Foundation of Caesar’s Might, 58 to 56 B.C.
Disorder at Rome and a Renewed Partnership, 58 to 56 B.C.
Caesar Overcomes Challenges in Gaul, 56 to 52 B.C.
Caesar’s Partners Strive to Keep up, 56 to 53 B.C.
Rivalry and Civil War between Caesar and Pompey, 53 to 48 B.C.
Caesar’s Dictatorships and Final Victory, 48 to 45 B.C.
Caesar’s Work of Reconstruction
The Assassination of Julius Caesar, March 15, 44 B.C.
The Question of Monarchy
The Significance of Caesar
17. The Last Years of the Republic, 44 to 30 B.C. 215
Marcus Antonius Tries to Take Control, 44 to 43 B.C.
The Triumvirate of Octavian, Antonius, and Lepidus, 43 to 36 B.C.
Antonius and Cleopatra Rule the East, 37 to 32 B.C.
The Approach and Renewal of Civil War, 32 to 30 B.C.
The End of the Republic
18. Social, Economic, and Cultural Life in the Late Republic, ca. 133 to ca. 30 B.C.
Land,Veterans, and Rural Life
Industry and Commerce
The Concentration of Wealth
Life for the Urban Poor
Slaves and Freedmen
Italians and Provincials
Women in the Late Republic
New Waves of Hellenization
Law and the Legal System
The Religious World of the Late Republic
Greek Philosophy and the Roman Elite
Art and Architecture
Late Republican Literature from the Gracchi to Sulla
The Novi Poetae
Catullus (ca. 85 to ca. 54 B.C.)
Lucretius (ca. 94 to ca. 55 B.C.)
Cicero (106 to 43 B.C.)
Sallust (86 to ca. 34 B.C.)
Caesar (100 to 44 B.C.)
Scholarship and Patriotic Antiquarianism
The Cultural Legacy of the Late Republic
THE EARLY ROMAN EMPIRE, 29 B.C. to A.D.
19. The Principate Takes Shape, 29 B.C. to A.D. 14
Sources for the Augustan Principate
Hopes for Peace
Problems to be Faced
The Evolving Constitutional Arrangements of the Principate
The Nature of the Principate
The Creation of a Central Administration
20. Imperial Stabilization under Augustus
Protection of the Emperor
Conquests in the West
Crete, and Cyrene
Holding the East
The Imperial Post (Cursus Publicus)
Urbanization of the Provinces
Growth of the Imperial Cult
Solidifying Control of the Balkans
The Problem of Succession
The Death of Augustus
21. The Impact of Augustus on Roman Imperial Life and Culture
The Population and Economic Impact of Rome
Agricultural Wealth and Urbanization
Cities of Italy and the Empire
Nonagricultural Trade and Industry
The Roman Imperial Coinage
Architecture and Art
Vergil (70 to 19 B.C.)
Horace (65 to 8 B.C.)
The Latin Elegists
Latin Prose Writers
The Impact of Augustus on Latin Literature
Scholarly and Technical Writings
Law and Jurisprudence
The Augustan Achievement
22. The First Two Julio–Claudian Emperors: Tiberius and Gaius (Caligula), A.D. 14 to 41
Sources for the Julio-Claudians
The Julio-Claudian Dynasty (Chart)
Tiberius (A.D. 14 to 37)
The Law of Treason (Maiestas)
Tiberius and the Senate: The Increasing Power of the Princeps
Tiberius the Administrator
Tiberius’ Last Years and the Succession
Gaius Caligula (A.D. 37 to 41)
A Popular Princeps at First
Problems in the Palace
Tensions with the Senate
Caligula’s Military Operations
Caligula’s Foreign and Provincial Policies
Caligula’s Religious Policies
23. Claudius, Nero, and the End of the Julio-Claudians, A.D. 41 to 68
Claudius (A.D. 41 to 54)
The Political Philosophy and Policies of Claudius
Foreign Policy and Imperial Defense
Colonization, Urbanization, and Romanization in the Provinces
Claudius’ Death and the Succession of Nero (A.D. 54 to 68)
The Darker Side of Nero’s Early Reign
Nero Asserts Himself
Growing Hostility toward Nero
Plots against the Throne
Prelude to a Fall
The Jewish Revolt and the Fall of Nero
24. The Crisis of the Principate and Recovery under the Flavians, A.D. 69 to 96
Galba (68 to 69)
Vespasian (69 to 79)
The Restoration of Peace
Reform of the Army
War and Rebellion, 82 to 93
The Near East
Vespasian’s Relations with the Senate
The Expansion of Executive Power
The Opposition to Vespasian
Titus (79 to 81)
Domitian (81 to 96)
War and Rebellion, 82 to 93
Fear, Purges, and the Murder of Domitian, 89 to 96
25. The Five “Good” Emperors of the Second Century, A.D. 96 to 180
Nerva (96 to 98)
Trajan (98 to 117)
A Model Emperor
The Death of Trajan, 117
The Effects of Trajan’s Wars
Hadrian (117 to 138)
The Early Years of Hadrian’s Principate
The Jewish Revolt
New Directions under Hadrian
The Last Years of Hadrian
Antoninus Pius (138 to 161)
Maintaining the Status Quo
The Legacy of Antoninus
Marcus Aurelius (161 to 180)
Persecution of the Christians
Marcus Aurelius as Emperor and Soldier
The Question of Succession
Problems for the Future
26. Imperial Culture and Society in the First Two Centuries A.D.
Post-Augustan Imperial Literature
Poverty of Literature under Tiberius and Caligula
The Blossoming of the Silver Age in Literature Under Claudius and Nero
Technical Writing and Scholarship
Science and Medicine
Philology and Literary Scholarship
Lack of Great Literature under the Flavians, A.D. 69 to 96
Resurgence of Literature under the “Good” Emperors
Resurgence of Greek Literature
The Second Sophistic
Roman Architecture in the First Two Centuries A.D.
Architecture in the Provinces
Mosaics, Coins, and Medallions
Inherent Economic and Fiscal Weakness of the Roman Empire
CRISIS, CONTINUITY, AND CHANGE IN THE THIRD AND FOURTH CENTURIES, A.D. 180 to 395
27. Conflicts and Crises under Commodus and the Severi, A.D. 180 to 235
Sources for Roman History, A.D. 180 to 285
Commodus (180 to 192)
Pertinax (January 1 to March 28, 193)
Didius Julianus (March 28 to June 1, 193)
The Accession of Septimius Severus (193 to 211)
New Sources of Imperial Authority and Legitimacy
Imperial Wars and Defense, 197 to 201/2
Roman Interlude, 203 to 207
The War in Britain, 208 to 211
Caracalla (211 to 217)
Macrinus (217 to 218)
Impressive Syrian Queens
Elagabalus (218 to 222)
Severus Alexander (222 to 235)
28. The Third-Century Anarchy, A.D. 235 to 285
Reasons for the Crisis
The Emperors of Troubled Times
The Nightmare Begins, 235 to 253
The Age of Gallienus, 253 to 268
The Reforms of Gallienus
An Assessment of Gallienus
Initial Recovery under Illyrian Soldier Emperors, 268 to 275
The Nightmare Resumes, 275 to 285
29. Changes in Roman Life and Culture During the Third Century
Third-Century Cultural Life
Science and Philosophy
Education and the World of Letters
Art and Architecture
Summary and Prospect
30. Diocletian: Creating the Fourth-Century Empire, A.D. 285 to 305 406
Sources for Roman History During the Fourth Century A.D.
The Rise of Diocletian
The Tetrarchy: A New Form of Imperial Rule, 293 to 312
Diocletian’s Other Reforms
Persecution of the Christians
31. Constantine the Great and Christianity, A.D. 306 to 337 418
The Rise of Constantine, 306 to 312
A Victory for Christianity
Constantine and Licinius: The Empire Divided, 313 to 324
The Donatist Schism
The Arian Heresy
The Defeat and Death of Licinius, 324
The Council of Nicaea, 325
Constantine’s Secular Policies
The Founding of Constantinople, 324 to 330
The Death of Constantine the Great, 337
32. From Constantine’s Dynasty to Theodosius the Great, A.D. 337 to 395
Murder and Civil War
The Empire under Constantius II
Julian the Apostate Emperor (361 to 363)
Jovian (June 363 to February 364)
Valentinian I (364 to 375) and Valens (364 to 378)
Gratian (375 to 383) and Theodosius the Great (379 to 395)
The Death of Theodosius and the Division of the Empire, 395
33. The Evolving World of Late Antiquity in the Fourth Century A.D. 437
The Social Context
34. Christianity and Classical Culture in the Fourth Century
Christianity and the Expansion of Classical Culture
The Educated World of Letters
Christian Literature of the Fourth Century
Fourth-Century Art and Architecture
THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE ROMAN WORLD IN LATE ANTIQUITY, A.D. 395 to 602
35. Germanic Takeover in the West and Imperial Survival in the East, A.D. 395 to 518
Sources for Roman History from 395 to 518
Western Weaknesses and Eastern Strengths
Stilicho and Alaric, 395 to 410
The Visigothic Migration and Settlement after Alaric
The Vandals, Alans, and Suevi
Galla Placidia,Valentinian III, and Aetius
Attila the Hun, 443 to 454
Angles, Saxons, and Jutes
The Vandals in Africa
The End of Imperial Power in the West, 454 to 500
Weak Men and Powerful Women:The Theodosian Dynasty in the East, 395 to 450
Persians and Huns, 408 to 450
Christian Controversies and Imperial Politics
German and Isaurian Generals
Pulcheria and Marcian (450 to 457)
Leo I (457 to 474)
Leo II (473 to 474) and Zeno (474 to 491)
Religious Controversies Continued
Anastasius (491 to 518)
36. Justin, Justinian, and the Impossible Dream of Universal Empire, A.D. 518 to 602 486
Sources for the Period of Justin and Justinian
The Reign of Justin (518 to 527)
Justinian (527 to 565)
Religious Policies of Theodora and Justinian
John the Cappadocian
The First Persian War, 527 to 532
The Nika Rebellion of the Blue and Green Circus Factions, 532
The Rebuilding of Constantinople
Reconquest of the North African Provinces, 533 to 534
Italy is Invaded, 536 to 540
Troubles in North Africa
The Second Persian War, 540 to 562
Resumption of War in Italy, 541 to 543
Belisarius Returns to Face Totila in Italy, 544 to 549
The Lazic War, 549 to 557
Peace in the East
Disaster in Italy, 549 to 551
The Recovery of Italy, 552 to 562
Wars on Other Fronts, 544 to 561
Justinian’s Legacy and Successors, 565 to 602
37. The Transformation of the Late Antique Roman World, A.D. 395 to 600
Social and Demographic Changes
The New Cultural Spirit
Art and Architecture
38. The Church and the Legacy of Rome
Transmitting the Roman Classical Legacy
The Imperial Church
The Rise of Rome