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THE ELEMENTS OF REASONING is a concise and lucid introduction to the basic elements of argumentative prose and the conceptual tools necessary to understand, analyze, criticize, and construct arguments. This text is not only perfect for a college course in argument analysis, but also as a reference tool when confronted with arguments outside the classroom experience. While THE ELEMENTS OF REASONING covers the standard formal tools of introductory logic, its emphasis is on practical applications to the kinds of arguments students most often encounter.
Table of Contents
Using This Book
What Is an Argument?
Three General Considerations
Multiple Conclusions and Complex Arguments
Showing the Structure of Arguments
Strategies of Analysis
Two Special Problems
Analyzing a Complex Argument: An Example
Overall Argument Evaluation
Some Valid Argument Forms
Valid Argument Forms
Two Invalid Argument Forms
Using the Forms to Show Validity
Using Inference and Equivalence Rules
Deductive Proof Strategies
More Valid Argument Forms: Categorical Reasoning and Venn Diagrams
Basic Causal Relationships
Contributing Factors as "Causes." Causal Explanations
Testing Causal Claims
Argument by Analogy and Models
Evaluating Analogical Reasoning
Errors in Reasoning: Fallacies
Fallacies in Supporting a Claim
Fallacies of Criticism and Response
Definition of "Definition." Two Types of Definition
Methods of Definition
Standards of Definition
Working Out a Definition
Vagueness and Ambiguity
Granted Claims and Acceptable Beliefs
New Claims, Background Beliefs, and Rationality
Rules for Writing
Exercises: Some Answers, Hints, and Comments
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.