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Classic Edition Sources: Multicultural Education, 3/e
1 Historical and Philosophical Perspectives on Multicultural Education
Selection 1 JOEL SPRING, from "The Great Civil Rights Movement and the New Culture Wars," Deculturalization and the Struggle for Equality: A Brief History of the Education of Dominated Cultures in the United States (4th ed., 2004)
"African and Mexican Americans were primarily concerned with ending racial segregation in the schools. Native and Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans wanted to reverse previous efforts by federal and state governments to destroy their languages and cultures."
Selection 2 MAXINE GREENE, from "The Passions of Pluralism: Multiculturalism and the Expanding Community," Educational Researcher (1993)
"I want to find a way of speaking of community, an expanding community, taking shape when diverse people, speaking as who and not what they are, come together in speech and action."
Selection 3 KATHY HYTTEN, from "The Promise of Cultural Studies of Education," Educational Theory (1999)
"[Cultural studies is] underscored by a vision of the possibility of developing a truly democratic social life in which the voices and contributions of all citizens are taken into account, and in which all forms of oppression and exploitation are diminished."
2 Sociological and Anthropological Perspectives on Multicultural Education
Selection 4 SAMUEL BOWLES, from "Unequal Education and the Reproduction of the Social Division of Labor," in Martin Carnoy, ed., Schooling in a Corporate Society: The Political Economy of Education in America, 2nd ed. (1972)
"Thus, unequal education has its roots in the very class structure which it serves to legitimize and reproduce. Inequalities in education are part of the web of capitalist society."
Selection 5 JOHN U. OGBU, from "Adaptation to Minority Status and Impact on School Success," Theory Into Practice (1992)
"Voluntary and involuntary minorities differ not only in initial terms of incorporation into American society but also in the cultural models of what it means to be a minority."
3 Ethnographic Perspectives on Multicultural Education
Selection 6 JONATHAN KOZOL, from Savage Inequalities: Children in America’s Schools (Crown Publishers, 1991)
"What startled me most—although it puzzles me that I was not prepared for this—was the remarkable degree of racial segregation that persisted almost everywhere."
Selection 7 PENELOPE ECKERT, from Jocks and Burnouts: Social Categories and Identity in the High School (Teachers College Press, 1989)
"The Jock and Burnout categories are more than a simple reflection of parents’ socioeconomic identity; they are pivotal in the transition from childhood to adult status, and both upward and downward mobility are achieved through the mediation of these categories."
Selection 8 GUADALUPE VALDÉS, from "The Town, the School, and the Students," Learning and Not Learning English: Latino Students in American Schools (Teachers College Press, 2001)
"Beginning in late 1980s, Mission Vista schools experienced a rapid population change . . . The arrival of Mexican immigrants from a largely rural background was felt in many ways by the community . . . Permanent residents were not prepared for the changes when they happened."
Selection 9 EDWARD T. HALL, from "What Is Culture?," The Silent Language (Doubleday, 1959)
"This means that culture is not merely passed from one generation to another, with some changes and revisions. Culture is continuously reshaped and reinterpreted, precisely in the context of socializing others, especially the young, to the American way of life."
Selection 10 LISA DELPIT, from "The Silenced Dialogue: Power and Pedagogy in Educating Other People’s Children," Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom (Harvard Educational Review, 1988)
"There are five aspects of power. . . 1. Issues of power are enacted in classrooms. . . 2. There are codes or rules for participating in power; that is, there is a ‘culture of power.’"
5 Racism and Prejudice
Selection 11 CORNEL WEST, from Race Matters (Beacon Press, 1993)
"Our truncated public discussions of race suppress the best of who and what we are as a people because they fail to confront the complexity of the issue in a candid and critical manner."
Selection 12 PEGGY MCINTOSH, from "White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack," Peace and Freedom (1988)
"I have come to see white privilege as an invisible package of unearned assets that I can count on cashing in each day, but about which I was ‘meant’ to remain oblivious."
Selection 13 JANA NOEL, from "Stereotyping, Prejudice, and Racism," Developing Multicultural Educators (2nd ed., Waveland Press, 2008)
"The five theories presented here explain possible reasons for the development of prejudice: racial and cultural difference, economic competition, traumatic experience, frustration-aggression, and social control . . . prejudice formation is not a simple matter."
6 Identity Development
Selection 14 JEAN S. PHINNEY, from "Ethnic Identity in Adolescents and Adults: Review of Research," Psychological Bullentin (1990)
"The stage model suggests that as a result of this process, people come to a deeper understanding and appreciation of their ethnicity."
Selection 15 BEVERLY DANIEL TATUM, from "Teaching White Students About Racism: The Search for White Allies and the Restoration of Hope," Teachers College Record (1994)
"However, the process [of identity development] will unfold in different ways for whites and people of color because of the different social positions they occupy in this society."
7 The Conservative Tradition
Selection 16 ARTHUR M. SCHLESINGER, JR., from "The Disuniting of America: Reflections on a Multicultural Society," (W.W. Norton & Company, 1992)
"The question America confronts as a pluralistic society is how to vindicate cherished cultures and traditions without breaking the bonds of cohesion—common ideals, common political institutions, common language, common cultures, common fate—that hold the republic together."
Selection 17 WILLIAM J. BENNETT, CHESTER E. FINN, JR., AND JOHN T. E. CRIBB, JR., from The Educated Child: A Parent’s Guide from Preschool through Eighth Grade (The Free Press, 1999)
"Many schools no longer possess a moral center. Their teachers have been discouraged from taking up character training in a direct fashion. They are reluctant to ‘impose their values’ on students. Their overriding concern is to demonstrate how tolerant they are of others’ behavior and choices."
8 Critical Pedagogy
Selection 18 PAULO FREIRE, from Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Continuum Publishing, 1970)
"[T]he banking concept of education regards men as adaptable, manageable beings. The more students work at storing the deposits entrusted to them, the less they develop the critical consciousness which would result from their intervention in the world as transformers of that world."
Selection 19 DANIEL G. SOLORZANO, from "Images and Words that Wound: Critical Race Theory, Racial Stereotyping, and Teacher Education," Teacher Education Quarterly (1997)
"Critical race theory recognizes that the experiential knowledge of Women and Men of Color are legitimate, appropriate, and critical to understanding, analyzing, practicing, and teaching . . . the overall goal of a critical race theory . . . [is] the elimination of racism as part of a larger goal of eliminating all forms of subordination in education."
9 Gender and Orientation
Selection 20 CHRISTIANNE CORBETT, CATHERINE HILL, AND ANDRESSE ST. ROSE, from Where the Girls Are: The Facts About Gender Equity in Education (American Association of University Women, 2008)
"The traditional gender differences persist, however, with boys generally outscoring girls on math tests by a small margin, and girls outscoring boys on reading tests by a larger, but still relatively small, margin . . . gender differences are small relative to gaps by race/ethnicity and family income level."
Selection 21 STUART BIEGEL, from The Right to Be Out: Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity in America’s Public Schools (University of Minnesota, 2010)
"The right to be out has emerged today as a strong and multifaceted legal imperative . . . The spirit of community that accompanies a positive school climate can be particularly important for . . . LGBT students . . . [in 2003] more than 75% of all teenagers witnessed bullying of classmates who were gay or thought to be gay."
10 Race and Immigration
Selection 22 GLORIA LADSON-BILLINGS, from "The Power of Pedagogy: Does Teaching Matter?" in William H. Watkins, James H. Lewis, and Victoria Chow, Race and Education: The Roles of History and Society in Educating African American Students (Allyn & Bacon, 2001)
"[Research] identifies cultural solidarity, linking classroom content to students’ experiences, a focus on the whole child, a use of familiar cultural patterns, and the incorporation of culturally compatible communication patterns as key elements of success in teaching African American urban students."
Selection 23 CORNEL PEWEWARDY, from "Learning Styles of American Indian/Alaska Native Students: A Review of Literature and Implications for Practice," Journal of American Indian Education (2002)
"Traditional American Indian/Alaska Native learning focuses on process over product, legends, and stories as traditional teaching paradigms, knowledge obtained from self, and cognitive development through problem-solving techniques."
Selection 24 HERSH C. WAXMAN, YOLANDA N. PADRÓN, AND ANDRES GARCÍA, from "Educational Issues and Effective Practices for Hispanic Students," in Susan J. Paik and Herbert J. Walberg, Narrowing the Achievement Gap: Strategies for Educating Latino, Black, and Asian Students (Springer, 2007)
"Another important characteristic found in effective schools serving predominantly Hispanic students is that they provide a number of different instructional strategies . . . providing language support in the students’ first language . . . use of collaboration, student-centered instruction, incorporating individual learning styles, providing more teacher support and classroom order, and having more instructional interactions with students."
Selection 25 VALERIE OOKA PANG, from "Fighting the Marginalization of Asian American Students with Caring Schools: Focusing on Curricular Change," Race, Ethnicity & Education (2006)
"Caring teachers consider why and how Asian Americans are marginalized in the curriculum, educational practices, and school policies. They examine how the needs of AA students are often ignored or not addressed . . . Curriculum content and strategies can be used in schools to fight the issue of marginalization."
Selection 26 CAROLA SÚAREZ-OROZCO, ALLYSON PIMENTEL, AND MARGARY MARTIN, from "The Significance of Relationships: Academic Engagement and Achievement Among Newcomer Immigrant Youth," Teachers College Record (2009)
"A number of studies have demonstrated that although immigrant youth have more positive attitudes toward their schools, hold higher aspirations, and are more optimistic about the future than their native-born peers, many perform poorly on a variety of academic indicators."
Selection 27 JIM CUMMINS, from Language, Power, and Pedagogy: Bilingual Children in the Crossfire (Multilingual Matters, 2000)
"The goal [of this selection] is to sketch a framework for understanding the causes of bilingual students’ academic difficulties and the kinds of intervention that are implied by this causal analysis."
Selection 28 EUGENE E. GARCÍA, from "Education Comes in Diverse Shapes and Forms for U.S. Bilinguals," Teaching and Learning in Two Languages: Bilingualism & Schooling in the United States (Teachers College Press, 2005)
"School district staffs have been creative in developing a wide range of programs for language-minority students . . . The result has been a broad and at times perplexing variety of instructional arrangements."
Selection 29 IRA C. LUPU, DAVID MASCI, AND ROBERT W. TUTTLE, from Religion in the Public Schools (The Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 2007)
"Nearly a half-century after the Supreme Court issued its landmark ruling striking down school-sponsored prayer, Americans continue to fight over the place of religion in public schools. Indeed, the classroom has become one of the most important battlegrounds in the broader conflict over religion’s role in public life."
Selection 30 KHYATI Y. JOSHI, from "Religious Oppression of Indian Americans in the Contemporary United States," in Maurianne Adams, Warren J. Blumenfeld, Carmelita Cateñeda, Heather W. Hackman, Madeline L. Peters, and Ximena Zúñiga, Readings for Diversity and Social Justice (2nd ed., Routledge, 2010)
"In the context of America’s racial schema, religious oppression sets up a dichotomy between the privilege and normativity associated with Whiteness and Christianity, and the othering of dark skin and non-Christian-ness."
13 Social Class
Selection 31 JEAN ANYON, from "Social Class and School Knowledge," Curriculum Inquiry (1981)
"[S]tudents in [working class] schools were not taught their own history—the history of the American working class and its situation of conflict with powerful business and political groups, e.g., its long history of dissent and struggle for economic dignity."
Selection 32 JOE L. KINCHELOE AND SHIRLEY R. STEINBERG, from "The Importance of Class in Multiculturalism," Changing Multiculturalism (Open University Press, 1997)
"Teachers, students, cultural critics and political leaders must understand the subtle and hidden ways in which class bias filters into educational policy, schooling and the cultural curriculum."
14 Multicultural Classrooms and Schools
Selection 33 LOUISE DERMAN-SPARKS, from "Empowering Children to Create a Caring Culture in a World of Differences," Childhood Education (1993/1994)
"[The] intent is to empower children to resist the negative impact of racism and other ‘isms’ on their development and to grow into adults who will want and be able to work with others to eliminate all forms of oppression."
Selection 34 JAMES A. BANKS, from "Transforming the Mainstream Curriculum," Educational Leadership (1994)
"[T]he transformation approach changes the structure, assumptions, and perspectives of the curriculum so that subject matter is viewed from the perspectives and experiences of a range of groups."
Selection 35 SONIA NIETO, from "Creating Multicultural Learning Communities," from The Light in Their Eyes: Creating Multicultural Learning Communities (Teachers College Press, 1999)
"[W]e expect schools to be living laboratories for democracy, where all students know that they are worthy and capable of learning and where they develop a social awareness and responsibility to their various communities."
15 Connecting with Families and Communities
Selection 36 JOYCE EPSTEIN, from "School/Family/Community Partnerships: Caring for the Children We Share," Phi Delta Kappan (1995)
"A framework of six major types of involvement . . . can guide the development of a balanced, comprehensive program of partnerships, including opportunities for family involvement at school and at home, with potentially important results for students, parents, and teachers."
Selection 37 LUIS C. MOLL, CATHY AMANTI, DEBORAH NEFF, AND NORMA GONZALEZ, from "Funds of Knowledge for Teaching: Using a Qualitative Approach to Connect Homes and Classrooms," Theory Into Practice (1992)
"It is specific funds of knowledge pertaining to the social, economic, and productive activities of people in a local region . . . that we seek to incorporate strategically into classrooms."