# Applied Marketing Resrch : An Applied Orientation

by: Malhotra, Naresh

**ISBN 13:**## 9780130830449

**ISBN 10:**## 0130830445

**Edition:**3rd**Format:**Hardcover**Copyright:**04/01/1999**Publisher:**PRENTICE HALL- Newer Edition

Note: Not guaranteed to come with supplemental materials (access cards, study guides, lab manuals, CDs, etc.)

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### Summary

Appropriate for both undergraduate and graduate courses in Marketing Research, this text presents a comprehensive look at both the principles and practices of marketing research with balanced coverage of qualitative and quantitative material. Written from the perspective of marketing research users, the Third Edition reflects current trends in international marketing, ethics, and the continuing integration of technology. It strives to build on the success of previous editions by being even more current, contemporary, illustrative and user-friendly.

### Table of Contents

Read moreForeword | p. xxvii |

Preface | p. xxix |

About the Author | p. xxxvii |

Introduction And Early Phases Of Marketing Research | p. 1 |

Introduction to Marketing Research | p. 3 |

Objectives | p. 3 |

Overview | p. 3 |

What Does Marketing Research Encompass? | p. 4 |

The Nature of Marketing Research | p. 9 |

Definition of Marketing Research | p. 11 |

A Classification of Marketing Research | p. 12 |

The Role of Marketing Research in MIS and DSS | p. 14 |

Marketing Research Suppliers and Services | p. 16 |

Selecting a Research Supplier | p. 20 |

Careers in Marketing Research | p. 21 |

Marketing Research Process | p. 24 |

The Department Store Patronage Project | p. 26 |

International Marketing Research | p. 27 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 28 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 28 |

Defining the Marketing Research Problem and Developing an Approach | p. 33 |

Objectives | p. 33 |

Overview | p. 33 |

Importance of Defining the Problem | p. 35 |

The Process of Defining the Problem and Developing an Approach | p. 36 |

Tasks Involved | p. 37 |

Environmental Context of the Problem | p. 42 |

Management Decision Problem and Marketing Research Problem | p. 45 |

Defining the Marketing Research Problem | p. 46 |

Components of the Approach | p. 49 |

International Marketing Research | p. 57 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 59 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 59 |

Professional Perspectives for Part I | p. 65 |

The Industry Perspective | p. 65 |

The Profession of Marketing Research: A Strategic Assessment | p. 67 |

The Marketing Research Problem: From the DM's Desk to Study Execution | p. 70 |

Cases for Part I | p. 73 |

Life in the Fast Lane: Fast Food Chains Race to Be Number One | p. 73 |

Nike Sprints Ahead of the Competition, Yet Has a Long Way to Run | p. 75 |

Lexus: Imparting Value to Luxury or Luxury to Value? | p. 76 |

Marketing Research Lights the Way for Electric Utilities | p. 77 |

Research Design Formulation | p. 79 |

Research Design | p. 81 |

Objectives | p. 81 |

Overview | p. 81 |

Research Design: Definition | p. 83 |

Research Design: Classification | p. 83 |

Exploratory Research | p. 85 |

Descriptive Research | p. 87 |

Causal Research | p. 94 |

Relationships Among Exploratory, Descriptive, and Causal Research | p. 96 |

Potential Sources of Error | p. 97 |

Budgeting and Scheduling the Project | p. 102 |

Marketing Research Proposal | p. 102 |

International Marketing Research | p. 103 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 104 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 105 |

Exploratory Research Design: Secondary Data | p. 109 |

Objectives | p. 109 |

Overview | p. 109 |

Primary versus Secondary Data | p. 112 |

Advantages and Uses of Secondary Data | p. 112 |

Disadvantages of Secondary Data | p. 113 |

Criteria for Evaluating Secondary Data | p. 113 |

Classification of Secondary Data | p. 117 |

Internal Secondary Data | p. 117 |

Published External Secondary Sources | p. 120 |

Computerized Databases | p. 122 |

Syndicated Sources of Secondary Data | p. 124 |

Syndicated Data from Households | p. 125 |

Syndicated Data from Institutions | p. 132 |

Combining Information from Different Sources: Single-Source Data | p. 134 |

Computer Mapping | p. 136 |

International Marketing Research | p. 137 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 138 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 139 |

Exploratory Research Design: Qualitative Research | p. 145 |

Objectives | p. 145 |

Overview | p. 145 |

Primary Data: Qualitative versus Quantitative Research | p. 147 |

Rationale for Using Qualitative Research | p. 148 |

A Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures | p. 149 |

Focus Group Interviews | p. 149 |

Depth Interviews | p. 157 |

Projective Techniques | p. 161 |

International Marketing Research | p. 167 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 169 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 170 |

Descriptive Research Design: Survey and Observation | p. 176 |

Objectives | p. 176 |

Overview | p. 176 |

Survey Methods | p. 178 |

Survey Methods Classified by Mode of Administration | p. 179 |

A Comparative Evaluation of Survey Methods | p. 187 |

Selection of Survey Method(s) | p. 194 |

Observation Methods | p. 196 |

Observation Methods Classified by Mode of Administration | p. 197 |

A Comparative Evaluation of Observation Methods | p. 202 |

A Comparison of Survey and Observation Methods | p. 203 |

International Marketing Research | p. 204 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 206 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 207 |

Causal Research Design: Experimentation | p. 212 |

Objectives | p. 212 |

Overview | p. 212 |

Concept of Causality | p. 214 |

Conditions for Causality | p. 214 |

Definitions and Concepts | p. 217 |

Definition of Symbols | p. 218 |

Validity in Experimentation | p. 219 |

Extraneous Variables | p. 219 |

Controlling Extraneous Variables | p. 222 |

A Classification of Experimental Designs | p. 223 |

Preexperimental Designs | p. 224 |

True Experimental Designs | p. 226 |

Quasi-Experimental Designs | p. 228 |

Statistical Designs | p. 230 |

Laboratory versus Field Experiments | p. 233 |

Experimental versus Nonexperimental Designs | p. 234 |

Limitations of Experimentation | p. 234 |

Application: Test Marketing | p. 235 |

Determining a Test Marketing Strategy | p. 238 |

International Marketing Research | p. 238 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 239 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 240 |

Measurement and Scaling: Fundamentals and Comparative Scaling | p. 246 |

Objectives | p. 246 |

Overview | p. 246 |

Measurement and Scaling | p. 248 |

Primary Scales of Measurement | p. 248 |

A Comparison of Scaling Techniques | p. 254 |

Comparative Scaling Techniques | p. 255 |

Verbal Protocols | p. 259 |

International Marketing Research | p. 260 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 260 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 261 |

Measurement and Scaling: Noncomparative Scaling Techniques | p. 266 |

Objectives | p. 266 |

Overview | p. 266 |

Noncomparative Scaling Techniques | p. 268 |

Continuous Rating Scale | p. 268 |

Itemized Rating Scales | p. 270 |

Noncomparative Itemized Rating Scale Decisions | p. 275 |

Multiitem Scales | p. 278 |

Choosing a Scaling Technique | p. 285 |

Mathematically Derived Scales | p. 285 |

International Marketing Research | p. 285 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 286 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 287 |

Questionnaire and Form Design | p. 292 |

Objectives | p. 292 |

Overview | p. 292 |

Questionnaires and Observation Forms | p. 293 |

Questionnaire Design Process | p. 295 |

Specify the Information Needed | p. 295 |

Type of Interviewing Method | p. 296 |

Individual Question Content | p. 298 |

Overcoming Inability to Answer | p. 299 |

Overcoming Unwillingness to Answer | p. 301 |

Choosing Question Structure | p. 302 |

Choosing Question Wording | p. 305 |

Determining the Order of Questions | p. 309 |

Form and Layout | p. 312 |

Reproduction of the Questionnaire | p. 313 |

Pretesting | p. 315 |

Observational Forms | p. 318 |

International Marketing Research | p. 318 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 319 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 320 |

Sampling: Design and Procedures | p. 326 |

Objectives | p. 326 |

Overview | p. 326 |

Sample or Census | p. 328 |

The Sampling Design Process | p. 329 |

A Classification of Sampling Techniques | p. 334 |

Nonprobability Sampling Techniques | p. 335 |

Probability Sampling Techniques | p. 338 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 349 |

Sampling: Final and Initial Sample Size Determination | p. 354 |

Objectives | p. 354 |

Overview | p. 354 |

Definitions and Symbols | p. 356 |

The Sampling Distribution | p. 356 |

Statistical Approaches to Determining Sample Size | p. 358 |

The Confidence Interval Approach | p. 359 |

Multiple Characteristics and Parameters | p. 365 |

Other Probability Sampling Techniques | p. 366 |

Adjusting the Statistically Determined Sample Size | p. 366 |

Nonresponse Issues in Sampling | p. 368 |

International Marketing Research | p. 373 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 374 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 375 |

The Normal Distribution | p. 381 |

Professional Perspectives for Part II | p. 383 |

Secondary Data | p. 383 |

Syndicated Data Collection and Applications | p. 385 |

Qualitative Research: Is Our Creativity Going Too Far? | p. 388 |

Cases for Part II | p. 391 |

The Forecast Is Sunny for the Weather Channel! | p. 391 |

Who Is the Host with the Most? | p. 392 |

Candy Is Dandy for Hershey | p. 394 |

Fragrances Are Sweet, but Competition Is Bitter | p. 397 |

Is Super Bowl Advertising Super Effective? | p. 400 |

Data Collection, Preparation, And Analysis | p. 401 |

Field Work | p. 403 |

Objectives | p. 403 |

Overview | p. 403 |

The Nature of Field Work | p. 405 |

Field Work/Data Collection Process | p. 405 |

Selection of Field Workers | p. 405 |

Training of Field Workers | p. 407 |

Supervision of Field Workers | p. 410 |

Validation of Field Work | p. 412 |

Evaluation of Field Workers | p. 412 |

International Marketing Research | p. 412 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 414 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 416 |

Data Preparation | p. 418 |

Objectives | p. 418 |

Overview | p. 418 |

The Data Preparation Process | p. 420 |

Questionnaire Checking | p. 421 |

Editing | p. 421 |

Coding | p. 422 |

Transcribing | p. 425 |

Data Cleaning | p. 427 |

Statistically Adjusting the Data | p. 429 |

Selecting a Data Analysis Strategy | p. 433 |

A Classification of Statistical Techniques | p. 434 |

International Marketing Research | p. 437 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 438 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 439 |

Frequency Distribution, Cross-Tabulation, and Hypothesis Testing | p. 444 |

Objectives | p. 444 |

Overview | p. 444 |

Frequency Distribution | p. 448 |

Statistics Associated with Frequency Distribution | p. 450 |

Introduction to Hypothesis Testing | p. 454 |

A General Procedure for Hypothesis Testing | p. 454 |

Cross-Tabulations | p. 459 |

Statistics Associated with Cross-Tabulation | p. 465 |

Cross-Tabulation in Practice | p. 469 |

Hypotheses Testing Related to Differences | p. 469 |

Parametric Tests | p. 470 |

Nonparametric Tests | p. 477 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 481 |

Analysis of Variance and Covariance | p. 488 |

Objectives | p. 488 |

Overview | p. 488 |

Relationship among Techniques | p. 490 |

One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 492 |

Statistics Associated with One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 492 |

Conducting One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 492 |

Illustrative Applications of One-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 497 |

Assumptions in Analysis of Variance | p. 499 |

N-Way Analysis of Variance | p. 501 |

Analysis of Covariance | p. 506 |

Issues in Interpretation | p. 507 |

Relative Importance of Factors | p. 508 |

Repeated Measures ANOVA | p. 510 |

Nonmetric Analysis of Variance | p. 511 |

Multivariate Analysis of Variance | p. 511 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 512 |

Correlation and Regression | p. 519 |

Objectives | p. 519 |

Overview | p. 519 |

Product Moment Correlation | p. 521 |

Partial Correlation | p. 525 |

Nonmetric Correlation | p. 527 |

Regression Analysis | p. 527 |

Bivariate Regression | p. 528 |

Statistics Associated with Bivariate Regression Analysis | p. 528 |

Conducting Bivariate Regression Analysis | p. 529 |

Multiple Regression | p. 538 |

Statistics Associated with Multiple Regression | p. 539 |

Conducting Multiple Regression Analysis | p. 539 |

Stepwise Regression | p. 546 |

Multicollinearity | p. 548 |

Relative Importance of Predictors | p. 549 |

Cross-Validation | p. 549 |

Regression with Dummy Variables | p. 550 |

Analysis of Variance and Covariance with Regression | p. 550 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 552 |

Discriminant Analysis | p. 559 |

Objectives | p. 559 |

Overview | p. 559 |

Basic Concept | p. 561 |

Relationship to Regression and Anova | p. 561 |

Discriminant Analysis Model | p. 562 |

Statistics Associated with Discriminant Analysis | p. 563 |

Conducting Discriminant Analysis | p. 563 |

Multiple Discriminant Analysis | p. 572 |

Stepwise Discriminant Analysis | p. 579 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 581 |

Estimation of Discriminant Function Coefficients | p. 584 |

Factor Analysis | p. 585 |

Objectives | p. 585 |

Overview | p. 585 |

Basic Concept | p. 586 |

Factor Analysis Model | p. 587 |

Statistics Associated with Factor Analysis | p. 588 |

Conducting Factor Analysis | p. 588 |

Applications of Common Factor Analysis | p. 601 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 604 |

Fundamental Equations of Factor Analysis | p. 608 |

Cluster Analysis | p. 610 |

Objectives | p. 610 |

Overview | p. 610 |

Basic Concept | p. 612 |

Statistics Associated with Cluster Analysis | p. 614 |

Conducting Cluster Analysis | p. 614 |

Applications of Nonhierarchical Clustering | p. 624 |

Clustering Variables | p. 627 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 629 |

Multidimensional Scaling and Conjoint Analysis | p. 633 |

Objectives | p. 633 |

Overview | p. 633 |

Basic Concepts in Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) | p. 636 |

Statistics and Terms Associated with MDS | p. 636 |

Conducting Multidimensional Scaling | p. 637 |

Assumptions and Limitations of MDS | p. 644 |

Scaling Preference Data | p. 644 |

Correspondence Analysis | p. 646 |

Relationship among MDS, Factor Analysis, and Discriminant Analysis | p. 647 |

Basic Concepts in Conjoint Analysis | p. 647 |

Statistics and Terms Associated with Conjoint Analysis | p. 648 |

Conducting Conjoint Analysis | p. 648 |

Assumptions and Limitations of Conjoint Analysis | p. 659 |

Hybrid Conjoint Analysis | p. 659 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 660 |

Professional Perspectives for Part III | p. 667 |

Cross-Tabulation | p. 667 |

Data Analysis: Multivariate Techniques | p. 670 |

Cases for Part III | p. 675 |

Danger! Celebrity in Use | p. 675 |

The Demographic Discovery of the Decade | p. 677 |

The Magic Wand of PepsiCo | p. 680 |

Matsushita Retargets the United States | p. 682 |

Pampers Develops a Rash--A Rash of Market Share | p. 684 |

Daimler/Chrysler Seeks a New Image | p. 687 |

Communication, International And Ethical Dimensions With Applications | p. 691 |

Report Preparation and Presentation | p. 693 |

Objectives | p. 693 |

Overview | p. 693 |

Importance of the Report and Presentation | p. 695 |

The Report Preparation and Presentation Process | p. 695 |

Report Preparation | p. 696 |

Oral Presentation | p. 705 |

Reading the Research Report | p. 706 |

Research Follow-Up | p. 707 |

International Marketing Research | p. 708 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 709 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 710 |

International Marketing Research | p. 714 |

Objectives | p. 714 |

Overview | p. 714 |

Marketing Research Goes International | p. 716 |

A Framework for International Marketing Research | p. 718 |

Survey Methods | p. 722 |

Measurement and Scaling | p. 726 |

Questionnaire Translation | p. 727 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 729 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 729 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 732 |

Objectives | p. 732 |

Overview | p. 732 |

Importance of Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 734 |

Stakeholders in Marketing Research | p. 735 |

Guidelines for Ethical Decision Making | p. 740 |

An Ethical Framework | p. 743 |

Ethics and the Marketing Research Process | p. 746 |

International Marketing Research | p. 747 |

Internet and Computer Applications | p. 749 |

Professional Perspectives for Part IV | p. 753 |

Preparing and Presenting the Marketing Research Report | p. 753 |

International Research | p. 756 |

Ethics in Marketing Research | p. 758 |

Cases for Part IV | p. 761 |

Will KFC Fry the Competition in China? | p. 761 |

Can Whirlpool Whirl Itself in Europe? | p. 762 |

Appendix | p. A1 |

Notes | p. N1 |

Indexes | p. I1 |

Subject Index | p. I1 |

Company Index | p. 18 |

Name Index | p. 110 |

Credits | p. C1 |

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