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After reviewing the literature on the genetic causes of ADHD, professor of psychology Jay Joseph concludes that such claims are unsupportedand that psychosocial causes need further exploration. Clinical psychologists Stephen V. Faraone and Joseph Biederman reject Joseph’s conclusions on the grounds that he makes errors in scientificlogic and ignores much of the relevant research.
Psychologist Diana Baumrind argues that Stanley Milgram’s study of obedience did not meet ethical standards for research, becauseparticipants were subjected to a research design that caused undue psychological stress that was not resolved after the study. Social psychologist Stanley Milgram, in response to Baumrind’s accusations, asserts that the study was well designed, the stress caused toparticipants could not have been anticipated, and the participants’ anguish dissipated after a thorough debriefing.
Psychotherapy researcher Martin E. P. Seligman defends the conclusion of Consumer Reports that psychotherapy is effective bypointing to the importance of client satisfaction in the actual settings in which the clients are treated. Psychotherapy researchers Neil S. Jacobson and Andrew Christensen contend that the Consumer Reports study is essentially the sameas 40-year-old studies that have long been rejected as inadequate.
Psychologist Howard Gardner argues that humans are better understood as having eight or nine different kinds of intelligence rather than ashaving one general intelligence. Psychologist Linda S. Gottfredson contends that despite some popular assertions, a single factor for intelligence can be measured with IQtests and is predictive of success in life.
May Benatar, a clinical social worker and lecturer, asserts that recent publicity on memories of sexual abuse has focused more on the“hype” of sexual abuse rather than on the actual prevailing act of sexual abuse. She maintains that repressed memories are a common response tochild sexual abuse and that they can be recovered in adulthood. Susan P. Robbins, an associate professor of graduate social work, contends that there is little support for the idea of repressed ordissociated memories of child sexual abuse in scientific studies. She also argues that outside sources can trigger or influence many inaccuratememories of child abuse.
Psychiatrist Frank W. Putnam defends the diagnosis of multiple personalities on the basis of research that demonstrates agreed-upon criteriaof validity. Psychiatrist Paul R. McHugh rejects the notion of a multiple personality disorder and proposes that its appearance is a product of therapistsuggestion.
Warren Throckmorton, director of college counseling and an associate professor of psychology at Grove City College, maintains that effortsto assist homosexually oriented individuals to modify their patterns of sexual arousal have been effective and can be conducted in an ethical manner. Barry A. Schreier, coordinator of training and a psychologist at the Counseling and Psychological Services of Purdue University, countersthat homosexuality is not an illness, so there is no need to treat it.
Physician Max Fink argues that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a safe procedure that will reduce the cost of patient care in the longterm. Leonard R. Frank, editor and cofounder of the Network Against Psychiatric Assault, protests that ECT is a dangerous, brainwashing practiceno matter what modifications have been made to make it safer.
Research scientist James E. Katz and Philip Aspden, executive director of the Center for Research on the Information Society, contend thatthe Internet has positive effects on the lives of its users. They also maintain that the Internet creates more opportunities for people to fosterrelationships with people, regardless of their location. Robert Kraut, a professor of social psychology and human computer interaction, and his colleagues at Carnegie Mellon University question howbeneficial Internet use really is. They argue that Internet use reduces the number and quality of interpersonal relationships that one has.
Sociology professor Diana E. H. Russell argues that pornography is profoundly harmful because it predisposes men to want to rape women andundermines social inhibitions against acting out rape fantasies. Michael C. Seto, Alexandra Maric, and Howard E. Barbaree, of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, contend that evidence for a causallink between pornography use and sexual offense remains equivocal.