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PART I: PAVING THE WAY TO TODAY’S MASS MEDIA
1) An Introduction to Mass Media Revolution
This chapter lays out the book’s approach to the study of mass media in the digital millennium, as well as gives a broad overview of the historical and theoretical context necessary for understanding mass media from a critical perspective.
The Style and Approach of Mass Media Revolution
Media as Storytellers
Inspiring Debate through Bias and Controversy
Experience and Scholarship
<VIDEO> A Sneak Peek at MMR
View this movie trailer of things to come as you experience Mass Media Revolution.
Appreciating Historical Context in Mass Media
Studying the Mass Media
Passive and Active Media
Models for Filtering Information and Identifying Meaning
The Humanistic Approach to Communication
Linking the Medium and the Message
<VIDEO> Marshall McLuhan, Explorations
In this 1960 broadcast, mass media theorist Marshall McLuhan predicts where the future of mass media communication and technologies are headed.
Culture and Mass Media: Sharing What We Know
The Challenge of Cross-Cultural Communication
The Media’s Influence on Religion and Beliefs
Global Access, Global Threats
From My Village to the Global Village
Proximity and Media Space
Convergence: Understanding Mass Media in the Digital Age
Dealing with Information Bombardment
Media Access versus Media Overload
Audience Trends: What the Consumers Want
Why Are Audiences Always Being Researched?
<VIDEO> How Ratings Work
Understand how audience feedback systems work.
Conclusion: Understanding New Mass Media from a Critical Perspective
2) Mass Media: A Brief Historical Narrative
This chapter offers a brief survey of the roots of mass media, moving from the earliest storytellers through the dawning of the digital age .
Early Mass Media Networks
Telling Stories in the Digital Age
The Visual Artists
The Mass-Communication Power of Maps
The Arts in the Middle Ages
The Printers and the Publishers
The Early Knowledge Industry
The Rise of Yellow Journalism and Penny Presses
The First Media War in the United States
The Early Photojournalists
Photography’s Golden Age
Music, Culture and Entertainment
Music, Patriotism and Revolution
The Radio Broadcasters
<VIDEO> The History of Radio
Following three decades of Marconi’s attempt at monopolizing the international wireless communication business, as well as a maze of competing innovations, patent battles and competitions between rival governments, radio at last moved beyond point-to-point communications
Motion Pictures Become a Major Part of American Mass Media
Early Documentary Films and Newsreels
The Television Producers
The Birth of Television Broadcast Systems
The Advent of News and Entertainment Television
Television Investigative Reporting
<VIDEO> News Stories
Again and again during times of national and international crisis, television news, as established by Edward R. Murrow, plays an essential role.
The Dawning of the Digital Age
Computers Get Linked
The Birth of the Personal Computer
The Emergence of a New World: The Internet
Conclusion: Mass Media Converge
3) Media Technologies and the Dynamics of Change
This chapter covers the evolution of mass media — its vast and wide-ranging content and the constantly evolving technological platforms that deliver it.
The Stages of Technological Innovation
The Precursor Stage
The Invention and Development Stages
<VIDEO> Media Technology Format Wars
A closer look at the causes and industry effects of the HDDVD and Blu-Ray format wars.
The Maturity Stage
The Antiquity Stage
Hurtling into the Future: The Effects of Technology on Mass Media
Dominating the Media Message
Coping with “Future Shock”
Evolving Roles of Mass Media in Society
Forming a New Global Culture
<VIDEO> Paul Levinson on the Future of Mass Media
A modern communication and media professor's insight into the future of mass media–after McLuhan’s global village.The Life or Death of the Printed Word?
The Digitization of Libraries
< VIDEO> World Digital Library
The LOC’s World Digital Library Project come to fruition.
The e-Book Market
The Digitization of Newspapers and Magazines
Going Green in Publishing
Information Revolution: Innovations and Roadblocks
The Read-Write Media Culture
Conclusion: Adapting to Change
PART II: THE EVOLUTION OF MEDIA CONTENT AND PLATFORMS
4) Print Media
This chapter traces the history and evolution of the three primary forms of print media: newspapers, magazines and books, as well as explores how advanced media technologies may have altered these media forever. In addition, the chapter examines two contemporary forms of print media–comic books and graphic novels–and the impact they have had on other media industries
Early American Newspaper Publishing.
Newspapers Evolve to Dominate Mass Media
The Industrial Revolution Alters the Newspaper Business
Newspapers Become an Advertising-Based Business
Early Communication Technologies Further Change the Industry
The Establishment of News Syndicates
The Rise of Magazine Publishing
Early Business Challenges
The Economics of Magazine Publishing
Diversification of Magazine Audience, Style and Specialty
The Evolution of Book Publishing
The Social and Cultural Impact of Books
The Birth of the Novel
Technologies Extend the Print Media
The Birth of Publishing Dynasties
The late Otis Chandler, former publisher of the L.A. Times, discusses the influence of
newspapers and publishing dynasties on American culture and politics.
Print Media Go Visual
The Use of Illustrations
The Use of Photographs
The Photo Magazine
The Comic Book Industry
Will Eisner Ushers in the Modern Comic Book
Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster Introduce the Comic Book Hero
Comic Books Influence Society
The Comic Book Industry Transitions
The Graphic Novel
The Newspaper Industry in the 20th Century
Early American Newspapers and the Freedom of Informaiton
The Sixties and the Seventies
The Eighties into the Digital Age
, USA Today
Al Neuharth, founder of USA Today offers an in-depth analysis of the success and popularity of his paper.
The Magazine Industry in the 20th Century
Rob Covey, Managing Editor and Creative Director of National Geographic Online offers insight into how the publication and the magazine industry overall is coping with the migration of content to the Web.
The Book Industry in the 20th Century
Conclusion: Will Print Media Endure the Digital Revolution?
5) Music and Radio
In this chapter we will explore the history, evolution, and interconnection of the music recording and radio broadcasting industries.
<VIDEO> Matt & Kim
Popular indie rock group Matt & Kim recount their story of going up against the major record labels.
The Cultural Influence of Music and Sound Recording
The Phonograph Advances the Music Industry
Musical Tastes Change in Changing Times
New Delivery Platforms Emerge
The Birth of the Radio Broadcasting Industry
The Recording Industry Links with Radio
The Pioneers of Radio Broadcasting
<VIDEO> The Battle to Build Radio
Documentary filmmaker Ken Burns tells the story of the battle between the three pioneers of radio.
Improved Technology Spurs the Growth of Radio
<VIDEO> FM Radio
Armstrong invents FM radio and changes the future of commercial radio.
Popular Music: The First Cultural Shift
Rock ‘n’ Roll Pushes the Social Envelope
Payola: Paying for Popularity
New Sounds, Old Sounds
Motown: The Sounds of Detroit
The Beatles and the British Invasion
Studio Mixing Transforms Popular Music
The Music of Revolution: The Second Cultural Shift
Folk Music: The Songs of Protest
Psychedelic Sound: When the Tide Turns
Looking back on the Woodstock Festival on its 40th anniversary.
Musical Styles Diversify
Two Extremes: Hard Rock to Disco
MTV and the Birth of Music Videos
Alternative and Independent Music
The Grunge Alternative
The Hip Hop Movement
Music and Radio Transition into the Digital Age
Deregulation and Consolidation Transform 21st-Century Radio
Is Internet Killing Radio?
Commercial Satellite Radio
Peer-to-Peer (P2P) File Sharing Revolutionizes Music
Conclusion: Music and Radio Converge–and Endure
6) Film and Television
Narrative in Film
An overview on the significance of mise-en-scene in filmic storytelling.
The Early Innovators of Film
The Special Effects of Georges Méliès
A Trip to the Moon
View the special effects–spectacular for its time–of Méliès’ A Trip to the Moon.
The Editing Techniques of Edwin Porter
The Great Train Robbery
Porter's cross-cutting editing technique made it possible for films to display action happening in multiple locations.
The Rise of the Hollywood Studio System
Hollywood’s Golden Age
New Sound Technologies Herald the Success of Talkies
The Star System Maximizes Studio Profits
The Big Five Start to Lose Power
The Rise of the Financing-Distribution Model
Post-Studio System Distribution and Exhibition Practices
The Industry after the Golden Age
Gone with the Wind
Gone with the Wind is one of the earliest blockbusters that reflected a financially successful change in the movie industry's business model, following the end of Hollywood's Golden Age.
The Influence of International Cinema Styles
The Maltese Falcon
John Huston's The Maltese Falcon (1941) adopts the French film noir style.
The Joy Luck Club
This fan trailer of The Joy Luck Club nicely sums up some of the film's major themes.
Middle Eastern Cinema
Latin American Cinema
Foreign Film Inspires a New Ratings System
The Motion Pictures Rating System of 1968
The Rise of the Independent Film Movement
The Magic of Special Effects
Audiences love special effects, as depicted in this short video history.
The Film Industry in the Digital Age
The Film Industry Suffers Decreased Revenue
The Film Industry Shifts Its Business Model Again
Narrative in Television
Appreciate the sophisticated storytelling of television drama, as depicted in the popular series, Lost.
The Evolution of Television
Early Television Programming
The Big Four Networks
The Situation Comedy
<VIDEO> All in the Family
Watch how All in the Family deals with social, racial and gender stereotypes.
<VIDEO> NASCAR 2010 Sprint All-Star Promo
NASCAR has become part of the American cultural phenomenon.
The Soap Opera
<VIDEO> Anatomy of a TV Show: The Young and the Restless
Take a look behind the scenes of a popular daytime drama in the making.
See for yourself why so many people look forward to seeing who wins the amazing race.
Cable Television Innovates Content
The Wire represents a new form of television that’s attracting viewers and producing revenue.
Conflicting Visions of the Future of Television
Conclusion: The Audience Drives the Future of Film and Television
7) New Media
This chapter explains what new media is and explores the highlights in its evolution, its contrast to what we now call old media, and new media’s impact on society and culture in the 21st century.
What Are the New Media and from Where Did They Originate?
The New New Media
The New Media Meme
Innovators and Visionaries of the Internet
The Information Superhighway
The Evolution of Web 2.0
Rediscovering Text: E-mail and Text-Messaging
<VIDEO> Language of Texting
This investigative report segment details the explosion of text messaging amongst high school students.
The Dynamic New Media
Linear vs. Nonlinear Content
Participatory Content Creation
Knowledge Sharing: An Open Source Model
Consuming New Media: Honing Critical Skills
Media Convergence: The Current Wave
Current TV and Current.Com
The Effects of Content Mobility
YouTube and User-Generated Television
Linking Up: The 21st-Century Phenomenon of Social Networking
Digital Meeting Places
The Dark Side of Online Social Networking
Follow My Twitter
Activism and Citizen Journaling
New Media Politics: Grassroots to Mainstream
<VIDEO> Politics in Cyberspace
New media pioneer Robert Greenwald looks at the impact of new media TV journalism on politics and democracy.
The Net Roots Movement
Technology and Participatory Democracy
The Gaming Generation: Playing in Alternate Worlds
War Games Lead to Video Games
The Development of PC and Console Games
Video Games Converge with Hollywood Movies
<VIDEO> Cinematic Video Games
A preview of some of the genre’s most formidable franchises: Halo, Metal Gear Solid and Grand Theft Auto.
Virtual Worlds: Playing in Alternate Realities
<VIDEO> Virtual Reality Gaming
Take a tour through the virtual gaming universe in this preview of popular games Little Big Planet, Spore, Second Life and World of Warcraft
Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games
Conclusion: New New Media and the Impact on Society and Culture
PART III: MEDIA BUSINESS, ECONOMICS, AND REGULATION
8 ) Advertising and Public Relations
Learn about the allied fields of advertising and public relations in this chapter, and discover and how they influence the public’s attitudes and beliefs about everything from products and brands to political leaders, to government policies and the media.
<VIDEO> Apple 1984
The legendary Apple 1984 commercial has survived on Websites such as YouTube, and shaped futurist-styled advertisements for technology and communication products.
Tracing the History of American Advertising
Advertising Is All Around Us
This video montage of Mobius Award — winning commercials illustrates how successful advertising draws us into the story, despite how impractical or unreasonable it may be.
Product Affinity: Making Us Want It
Unlocking the Code to Our Desires
Relying on Universal Appeal
<VIDEO> Ejector Pew
Provocative religious commercials, such as this one can cast religious messages using trendy and even humorous imagery.
<VIDEO> Suspend Reality
Commercial advertising, at its most effective, asks us to suspend reality and accept that we can be part of the story it is presenting.
Teaching and Informing
Narrowcasting: Connecting Consumers and Products
Product Placement: Advertising without Advertising
Breaking the Rules: Advertising in the 21st Century
Humor is an effective way of engaging audience attention or “capturing eyeballs.”
The Influences of Commercial Advertising
<VIDEO> Dove Evolution
Dove brand produced a series of commercials that, rather than promote artificial beauty, encouraged young women to embrace and nurture their natural beauty, body and self esteem.
Political Advertising: Making Us Vote for It
<VIDEO> Johnson Daisy Girl
Sometimes negative messages are far from subtle, as depicted in this 1964 Lyndon Johnson ad, which played on the Cold War fears of most Americans at the time.
> Kerry Swift Boat Vets
The Republican political action group called the Swift Boat Veterans for truth created a series of television ads questioning the actions of 2004 Democratic presidential candidate John Kerry.
<VIDEO> Clinton 3 A.M.
When then Senator Barack Obama tenaciously held on to the lead in the closely contested Democratic Primary race, then Senator Hillary Clintons came out with this ad spot.
Public Relations: Building and Managing Image
Tracing the History of American PR
Public Relations Today
Developing Public Interest: Paparazzi and Promoters
Developing Public Trust: PR Ethics
Raising Social Awareness: The PSA
<VIDEO> Sample PSAs
Anti-smoking ads such as the one shown in this video reinforce the health risks of tobacco use, especially to younger audiences.
Facilitating Communication: Diversity in New PR
Conclusion: Selling Ideas, Framing Perceptions
9) Media Industry
In this chapter we take a look inside the fascinating and often complex world of the business and economics of the media industry and the forces and challenges driving the industry in the 21st century.
Tracing American Media Ownership
Vertical Integration: Process and Impact
Public Corporations and Private Ownership
Localism: A Model Alternative
Content Control from the Boardroom
News Corporation: Agenda or Profit?
<VIDEO> Corporate Influences on the News
An excerpt from Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch’s War on Journalism, highlighting public concerns over corporate control of the news.
Catering to Local Audiences
The Economics of Media: Three Models
The American Commercial Model
The Public Sphere Model
The New Media Model: The Internet Alternative
The Impact on Newspapers
<VIDEO> Arianna Huffington
The Huffington Post’s successful business model is helping drive the migration of newspapers and news magazines onto the Web.
The Impact on Book Publishers
The Impact on Music and Video Distribution
The Role of the Federal Communication Commission (FCC)
The Business of Music and Sound Recording
Technology Turns the Tide: Music Makes Money
The Recording Industry
Race Music: The Predecessor to Rhythm and Blues
The Business of Radio
Commercial Radio: Beginnings
Recording Technologies Drive Radio Content
Going Digital: The Demise of Music on the Radio
The Business of Television and Film
The Audience Is “King”
Finding the Right Audience: Targeting Factors
Audiences under the Influence: Media Effects
Researching the Audience: Identifying Trends
Targeting the Children’s Audience
Empowering the Passive Media Consumer
The Effects of Media Globalization
Conclusion: Surviving the Business of Mass Media in the Digital Age
10) Media Bias
This chapter explores why some media outlets show specific bias and identifies the different forms of bias that exist; it also takes a critical look at the audience’s role in driving bias in the media. .
The Building Blocks of Bias
<VIDEO> Catherine Crier on Media Bias
Catherine Crier, former State Supreme Court Judge, author, and TV host discusses media bias.
Are Media Always Biased?
Packaging Media Bias
Types of Media Bias
Bias by Selection
Bias by Extraordinary Experience
Bias by Market Demand
<VIDEO> Perspectives on Media Bias
Multiple perspectives on bias in the media from top personalities in the field.
The Economics of Media Bias
Do Advertisers Support Media Bias?
Corporate Control of the Media Message
Federal Control of the Media Message
Bias in Film and Television
The Liberal Rebel
The Global Evangelist
The Missionary Filmmaker
The Civics Lesson
Bias in Blogs
Are Mainstream Media Liberally Biased?
Drawing the Line between Fact and Opinion
<VIDEO> REM, “Bad Day”
Michael Stipe’s satirical musical commentary on the 24/7 news cycle.
Conclusion: What Is the Impact of Bias in American Media?
11) Mass Media Law and Ethics
This chapter explores the inextricable links between mass media, law, and the advance of technological innovation, as well as how we should define media ethics in our rapidly evolving global culture.
Brief History of Mass Media Law
The Printing Press Challenges Early Regulation
Benjamin Franklin and the Fourth Estate
The First Amendment
Excerpts from HBO’s Assume the Position special with Robert Wuhl.
Early Attempts at Censorship
Regulatory Censorship in the 21st Century
Defamation: Libel and Slander
Media and Privacy
Privacy on the Internet
Invasion of Privacy Laws
The widespread use of security monitoring technology in public places is challenging previous legal limitations on the protection of individual privacy.
The Privacy of Public Figures and in Public Places
Mass Media Law and National Security
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
Historic Roots of Copyright Law
Stanford University Law Professor Lawrence Lessig explores the historic roots and present 21st-century challenges of U.S. Copyright Law.
Fair Use Doctrine
Copyright and Ownership of Digital Properties
Enforcing Copyright Law in a Digital World
<VIDEO> Copyright Basics
An animated quick tutorial on how copyright works.
Alternative Approaches to Copyright Protection
> Creative Commons
Introduction to the Creative Commons alternative to copyright.
Enforcing Copyright Law on a Global Playing Field
International Models of Intellectual Property Law
International Broadcast Law and Regulation
Confidentiality in News Gathering
Reporting on Government Officials and Agencies
Reporting on the Judiciary
Pornography: Free Expression or Obscenity?
Distinguishing between Obscenity and Pornography
The Miller Test
Ethics and Mass Media
The Philosophy behind Mass Media Ethics
Self-Regulation in the Media
<VIDEO> Journalistic Ethics
Former White House correspondent Lee Thornton on journalistic ethics and the Jayson Blair case.
The Ethical Challenges of a Converged World
The Public as Media Producers: Ethical Responsibilities
Critical Models for Mass Media Ethics
Conclusion: We Are All Legally and Ethically Responsible
PART IV: THE MEDIA EXPERIENCE, CULTURE AND YOU
12) The Power of Photography in Mass Media
This chapter concentrates on photography as a visual mass medium and how technological advances in photography have contributed to a more active media-consumer culture.
Visual Communication in Mass Media
Understanding Visual Literacy
Finding Meaning in Visual Media
The Visual Form
The Subject Matter
The Media Environment
Photography and Modern Culture
> Photographic Impact
Learn how the language of photography has helped us to define our sense of culture, identity and history.
> Photography and Society
Watch this segment on the impact of American photography on society, culture and education.
Sexuality as Subject
Photojournalism: The Image as a Mass Medium
Photojournalism Covers Major Events
Photojournalism Profiles Faces of the Great Depression
Photojournalism during World War II
Photojournalism in the Post-WWII Years
Photojournalism Covers Science and Nature
> Ansel Adams
A look into Ansel Adams's photographic style and the impact his nature photography had on mass media content.
Photography in the Digital Age
13) Journalism in the Digital Millennium
In this chapter we will explore New Journalism and the special trends and challenges facing journalists in the 21st century and the new skill sets required to meet these new challenges.
Reinventing Journalism for the Digital Millennium
From Short-Tail to Long-Tail Journalism
24/7 News Cycle: All the News, All the Time
Breaking the Story in the 24/7 News Cycle
Pioneers of the 24/7 News Cycle
New Journalism: Alternative Forms and Methods
News Aggregator Sites
The New World of Reporting, Writing and Editing the News
Mediated Content in the Digital World: We Still Need Editors