ISBN: 9780133354850 | 0133354857

Edition: 2ndFormat: Hardcover

Publisher: Pearson

Pub. Date: 6/27/2013

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* For a one/two-semester senior or first-year graduate level course in analog and digital communications. This text is also a suitable reference for electrical engineers for all basic relevant topics in digital communication system design. *

With an emphasis on digital communications, ** Communication Systems Engineering, ** introduces the basic principles underlying the analysis and design of communication systems. In addition, this text gives a solid introduction to analog communications and a review of important mathematical foundation topics.

PREFACE xvii

**1 INTRODUCTION 1**

1.1 Historical Review 1

1.2 Elements of an Electrical Communication System 4

*1.2.1 Digital Communication System, 7*

*1.2.2 Early Work in Digital Communications, 10*

1.3 Communication Channels and Their Characteristics 12

1.4 Mathematical Models for Communication Channels 18

1.5 Summary and Further Reading 20

**2 SIGNALS AND LINEAR SYSTEMS 21**

2.1 Basic Concepts 21

*2.1.1 Basic Operations on Signals, 21*

*2.1.2 Classification of Signals, 23*

*2.1.3 Some Important Signals and Their Properties, 31*

*2.1.4 Classification of Systems, 38*

*2.1.5 Analysis of LTI Systems in the Time Domain, 41*

2.2 Fourier Series 43

*2.2.1 Fourier Series and Its Properties, 44*

*2.2.2 Response of LTI Systems to Periodic Signals, 54*

*2.2.3 Parseval’s Relation, 56*

2.3 Fourier Transform 58

*2.3.1 From Fourier Series to Fourier Transforms, 58*

*2.3.2 Basic Properties of the Fourier Transform, 64*

*2.3.3 Fourier Transform for Periodic Signals, 78*

*2.3.4 Transmission over LTI Systems, 81*

2.4 Filter Design 85

2.5 Power and Energy 89

*2.5.1 Energy-Type Signals, 89*

*2.5.2 Power-Type Signals, 92*

2.6 Hilbert Transform and Its Properties 95

2.7 Lowpass and Bandpass Signals 98

2.8 Summary and Further Reading 100

Problems 101

**3 AMPLITUDE MODULATION 117**

3.1 Introduction to Modulation 118

3.2 Amplitude Modulation 119

*3.2.1 Double-Sideband Suppressed-Carrier AM, 119*

*3.2.2 Conventional Amplitude Modulation, 126*

*3.2.3 Single-Sideband AM, 132*

*3.2.4 Vestigial-Sideband AM, 134*

3.3 Implementation of Amplitude Modulators and Demodulators 137

3.4 Signal Multiplexing 144

*3.4.1 Frequency-Division Multiplexing, 144*

*3.4.2 Quadrature-Carrier Multiplexing, 145*

3.5 AM Radio Broadcasting 146

3.6 Summary and Further Reading 149

Appendix 3A: Derivation of the Expression for SSB-AM Signals 149

Problems 151

**4 ANGLE MODULATION 161**

4.1 Representation of FM and PM Signals 161

4.2 Spectral Characteristics of Angle-Modulated Signals 166

*4.2.1 Angle Modulation by a Sinusoidal Signal, 166*

*4.2.2 Angle Modulation by an Arbitrary Message Signal, 170*

4.3 Implementation of Angle Modulators and Demodulators 171

4.4 FM Radio Broadcasting 179

4.5 Summary and Further Reading 181

Problems 182

**5 PROBABILITY AND RANDOM PROCESSES 190**

5.1 Review of Probability and Random Variables 190

*5.1.1 Sample Space, Events, and Probability, 190*

*5.1.2 Conditional Probability, 191*

*5.1.3 Random Variables, 194*

*5.1.4 Functions of a Random Variable, 201*

*5.1.5 Multiple Random Variables, 203*

*5.1.6 Sums of Random Variables, 208*

5.2 Random Processes: Basic Concepts 209

*5.2.1 Statistical Averages, 212*

*5.2.2 Wide-Sense Stationary Processes, 215*

*5.2.3 Multiple Random Processes, 217*

*5.2.4 Random Processes and Linear Systems, 218*

*5.2.5 Power Spectral Density of Stationary Processes, 220*

*5.2.6 Power Spectral Density of a Sum Process, 225*

5.3 Gaussian and White Processes 226

*5.3.1 Gaussian Processes, 226*

*5.3.2 White Processes, 228*

*5.3.3 Filtered Noise Processes, 230*

5.4 Summary and Further Reading 235

Problems 236

**6 EFFECT OF NOISE ON ANALOG COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 255**

6.1 Effect of Noise on Amplitude Modulation Systems 255

*6.1.1 Effect of Noise on a Baseband System, 256*

*6.1.2 Effect of Noise on DSB-SC AM, 256*

*6.1.3 Effect of Noise on SSB AM, 258*

*6.1.4 Effect of Noise on Conventional AM, 259*

6.2 Effect of Noise on Angle Modulation 263

*6.2.1 Threshold Effect in Angle Modulation, 271*

*6.2.2 Preemphasis and Deemphasis Filtering for FM, 274*

6.3 Comparison of Analog-Modulation Systems 277

6.4 Effects of Transmission Losses and Noise in Analog Communication

Systems 278

*6.4.1 Characterization of Thermal Noise Sources, 279*

*6.4.2 Effective Noise Temperature and Noise Figure, 280*

*6.4.3 Transmission Losses, 283*

*6.4.4 Repeaters for Signal Transmission, 284*

6.5 Summary and Further Reading 287

Problems 288

**7 ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION 296**

7.1 Sampling of Signals and Signal Reconstruction from Samples 297

*7.1.1 The Sampling Theorem, 297*

7.2 Quantization 301

*7.2.1 Scalar Quantization, 302*

*7.2.2 Vector Quantization, 309*

7.3 Encoding 311

7.4 Waveform Coding 312

*7.4.1 Pulse Code Modulation, 313*

*7.4.2 Differential Pulse Code Modulation, 317*

*7.4.3 Delta Modulation, 318*

7.5 Analysis—Synthesis Techniques 321

7.6 Digital Audio Transmission and Digital Audio Recording 325

*7.6.1 Digital Audio in Telephone Transmission Systems, 325*

*7.6.2 Digital Audio Recording, 327*

7.7 The JPEG Image-Coding Standard 332

7.8 Summary and Further Reading 335

Problems 336

**8 DIGITAL MODULATION METHODS IN AN ADDITIVE WHITE GAUSSIAN NOISE CHANNEL 347**

8.1 Geometric Representation of Signal Waveforms 348

8.2 Binary Modulation Schemes 352

*8.2.1 Binary Antipodal Signaling, 352*

*8.2.2 Binary Orthogonal Signaling, 356*

8.3 Optimum Receiver for Binary Modulated Signals in Additive White Gaussian Noise 361

*8.3.1 Correlation-Type Demodulator, 362*

*8.3.2 Matched-Filter-Type Demodulator, 371*

*8.3.3 The Performance of the Optimum Detector for Binary Signals, 379*

8.4 *M*-ary Digital Modulation 384

*8.4.1 The Optimum Receiver for M-ary Signals in AWGN, 384*

*8.4.2 A Union Bound on the Probability of Error, 396*

8.5 *M*-ary Pulse Amplitude Modulation 398

*8.5.1 Carrier-Modulated PAM for Bandpass Channels (M-ary ASK), 400*

*8.5.2 Demodulation and Detection of Amplitude-Modulated PAM Signals, 403*

*8.5.3 Probability of Error for M-ary PAM, 403*

8.6 Phase-Shift Keying 406

*8.6.1 Geometric Representation of PSK Signals, 408*

*8.6.2 Demodulation and Detection of PSK Signals, 410*

*8.6.3 Probability of Error for Phase-Coherent PSK Modulation, 411*

*8.6.4 Differential Phase Encoding and Differential Phase Modulation*

*and Demodulation, 416*

*8.6.5 Probability of Error for DPSK, 418*

8.7 Quadrature Amplitude-Modulated Digital Signals 419

*8.7.1 Geometric Representation of QAM Signals, 421*

*8.7.2 Demodulation and Detection of QAM Signals, 423*

*8.7.3 Probability of Error for QAM, 424*

8.8 Carrier-Phase Estimation 429

*8.8.1 The Phase-Locked Loop, 429*

*8.8.2 The Costas Loop, 437*

*8.8.3 Carrier-Phase Estimation for PAM, 439*

*8.8.4 Carrier-Phase Estimation for PSK, 440*

*8.8.5 Carrier-Phase Estimation for QAM, 444*

8.9 Symbol Synchronization 446

*8.9.1 Early—Late Gate Synchronizers, 447*

*8.9.2 Minimum Mean Square Error Method, 450*

*8.9.3 Maximum-Likelihood Method, 451*

*8.9.4 Spectral-Line Method, 452*

*8.9.5 Symbol Synchronization for Carrier-Modulated Signals, 455*

8.10 Regenerative Repeaters 456

8.11 Summary and Further Reading 457

Problems 459

**9 MULTIDIMENSIONAL DIGITAL MODULATION 485**

9.1 *M*-ary Orthogonal Signals 485

*9.1.1 Probability of Error for M-ary Orthogonal Signals, 488*

*9.1.2 A Union Bound on the Error Probability of M-ary Orthogonal Signals, 491*

9.2 Biorthogonal Signals 492

*9.2.1 Probability of Error for M-ary Biorthogonal Signals, 495*

9.3 Simplex Signals 497

*9.3.1 Probability of Error for M-ary Simplex Signals, 498*

9.4 Binary-Coded Signals 499

*9.4.1 Probability of Error for Binary-Coded Signals, 501*

9.5 Frequency-Shift Keying 501

*9.5.1 Demodulation of M-ary FSK, 503*

*9.5.2 Optimum Detector for Noncoherent Binary FSK, 507*

*9.5.3 Probability of Error for Noncoherent Detection of M-ary FSK, 510*

9.6 Modulation Systems with Memory 513

*9.6.1 Continuous-Phase FSK, 513*

*9.6.2 Spectral Characteristics of CPFSK Signals, 524*

9.7 Comparison of Modulation Methods 525

9.8 Summary and Further Reading 532

Problems 533

**10 DIGITAL TRANSMISSION THROUGH BANDLIMITED AWGN CHANNELS 543**

10.1 Characterization of Bandlimited Channels and Signal Distortion 543

*10.1.1 Intersymbol Interference in Signal Transmission, 547*

*10.1.2 Digital Transmission through Bandlimited Bandpass Channels, 549*

10.2 The Power Spectrum of Digitally Modulated Signals 552

10.3 Signal Design for Bandlimited Channels 556

*10.3.1 Design of Bandlimited Signals for Zero ISI–The Nyquist*

*Criterion, 558*

*10.3.2 Design of Bandlimited Signals with Controlled ISI–Partial Response Signals, 564*

10.4 Detection of Partial-Response Signals 566

*10.4.1 Symbol-by-Symbol Detection, 567*

*10.4.2 Probability of Error for Symbol-by-Symbol Detection, 570*

*10.4.3 Maximum-Likelihood Sequence Detection of Partial-Response*

*Signals, 573*

*10.4.4 Error Probability of the Maximum-Likelihood Sequence*

*Detector, 576*

10.5 System Design in the Presence of Channel Distortion 577

*10.5.1 Design of Transmitting and Receiving Filters for a Known*

*Channel, 578*

*10.5.2 Channel Equalization, 582*

10.6 Summary and Further Reading 599

Appendix 10A: Power Spectrum of Modulated Signals 601

*10A.1 The Power Spectrum of the Baseband Signal, 601*

*10A.2 The Power Spectrum of the Carrier Modulated Signals, 603*

Problems 604

**11 MULTICARRIER MODULATION AND OFDM 621**

11.1 Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiplexing 621

11.2 Modulation and Demodulation in an OFDM System 622

11.3 An OFDM System Implemented via the FFT Algorithm 626

11.4 Spectral Characteristics of OFDM Signals 629

11.5 Peak-to-Average Power Ratio in OFDM Systems 631

11.6 Applications of OFDM 633

*11.6.1 Digital Subscriber Lines, 633*

*11.6.2 Wireless LANs, 635*

*11.6.3 Digital Audio Broadcasting, 636*

11.7 Summary and Further Reading 636

Problems 637

**12 AN INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION THEORY 641**

12.1 Modeling Information Sources 642

*12.1.1 Measure of Information, 644*

*12.1.2 Joint and Conditional Entropy, 647*

*12.1.3 Mutual Information, 650*

*12.1.4 Differential Entropy, 650*

12.2 The Source Coding Theorem 652

12.3 Source Coding Algorithms 655

*12.3.1 The Huffman Source Coding Algorithm, 655*

*12.3.2 The Lempel—Ziv Source Coding Algorithm, 659*

12.4 Modeling of Communication Channels 661

12.5 Channel Capacity 664

*12.5.1 Gaussian Channel Capacity, 669*

12.6 Bounds on Communication 671

12.7 Summary and Further Reading 674

Problems 675

**13 CODING FOR RELIABLE COMMUNICATIONS 689**

13.1 The Promise of Coding 689

13.2 Linear Block Codes 694

*13.2.1 Decoding and Performance of Linear Block Codes, 700*

*13.2.2 Some Important Linear Block Codes, 707*

*13.2.3 Error Detection versus Error Correction, 708*

*13.2.4 Burst-Error-Correcting Codes, 709*

13.3 Convolutional Codes 711

*13.3.1 Basic Properties of Convolutional Codes, 712*

*13.3.2 Maximum Likelihood Decoding of Convolutional Codes–The Viterbi*

*Algorithm, 717*

*13.3.3 Other Decoding Algorithms for Convolutional Codes, 722*

*13.3.4 Bounds on the Error Probability of Convolutional Codes, 722*

13.4 Good Codes Based on Combination of Simple Codes 725

*13.4.1 Product Codes, 727*

*13.4.2 Concatenated Codes, 728*

13.5 Turbo Codes and Iterative Decoding 728

*13.5.1 MAP Decoding of Convolutional Codes–The BCJR Algorithm, 731*

*13.5.2 Iterative Decoding for Turbo Codes, 737*

*13.5.3 Performance of Turbo Codes, 739*

13.6 Low-Density Parity-Check Codes 741

*13.6.1 Decoding LDPC Codes, 745*

13.7 Coding for Bandwidth-Constrained Channels 747

*13.7.1 Combined Coding and Modulation, 748*

*13.7.2 Trellis-Coded Modulation, 749*

13.8 Practical Applications of Coding 756

*13.8.1 Coding for Deep-Space Communications, 756*

*13.8.2 Coding for Telephone-Line Modems, 758*

13.9 Summay and Further Reading 759

Problems 760

**14 DATA TRANSMISSION IN FADING MULTIPATH CHANNELS 769**

14.1 Characterization of Physical Wireless Channels 769

14.2 Channel Models for Time-Variant Multipath Channels 771

*14.2.1 Frequency Nonselective Fading Channel, 774*

*14.2.2 Frequency Selective Fading Channel, 777*

*14.2.3 Models for the Doppler Power Spectrum, 778*

*14.2.4 Propagation Models for Mobile Radio Channels, 781*

14.3 Performance of BinaryModulation in Rayleigh Fading Channels 783

*14.3.1 Probability of Error in Frequency Nonselective Channels, 783*

*14.3.2 Performance Improvement through Signal Diversity, 786*

*14.3.3 The RAKE Demodulator and Its Performance in Frequency Selective*

*Channels, 792*

*14.3.4 OFDM Signals in Frequency Selective Channels, 794*

14.4 Multiple Antenna Systems 795

*14.4.1 Channel Models for Multiple Antenna Systems, 796*

*14.4.2 Signal Transmission in a Slow Fading Frequency NonselectiveMIMO*

*Channel, 797*

*14.4.3 Detection of Data Symbols in a MIMO System, 799*

*14.4.4 Error Rate Performance of the Detectors, 800*

*14.4.5 Space—Time Codes for MIMO Systems, 802*

14.5 Link Budget Analysis for Radio Channels 810

14.6 Summary and Further Reading 813

Problems 815

**15 SPREAD-SPECTRUM COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS 825**

15.1 Model of a Spread-Spectrum Digital Communication System 826

15.2 Direct Sequence Spread-Spectrum Systems 827

*15.2.1 Effect of Despreading on a Narrowband Interference, 830*

*15.2.2 Probability of Error at the Detector, 831*

*15.2.3 Performance of Coded Spread-Spectrum Signals, 836*

15.3 Some Applications of DS Spread-Spectrum Signals 836

*15.3.1 Low-Detectability Signal Transmission, 836*

*15.3.2 Code Division Multiple Access, 837*

*15.3.3 Communication over Channels with Multipath, 838*

*15.3.4 Wireless LANs, 839*

15.4 Generation of PN Sequences 840

15.5 Frequency-Hopped Spread Spectrum 843

*15.5.1 Slow Frequency-Hopping Systems and Partial-Band Interference, 844*

*15.5.2 Fast Frequency Hopping, 847*

*15.5.3 Applications of FH Spread Spectrum, 848*

15.6 Synchronization of Spread-Spectrum Systems 849

*15.6.1 Acquisition Phase, 849*

*15.6.2 Tracking, 852*

15.7 Digital Cellular Communication Systems 856

*15.7.1 The GSM System, 858*

*15.7.2 CDMA System Based on IS-95, 862*

*15.7.3 Third Generation Cellular Communication Systems and Beyond, 866*

15.8 Summary and Further Reading 868

Problems 869

REFERENCES 877

INDEX 886