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Preface for Instructors
A Note to the Student
How to Write Summaries, Critiques, Syntheses, and Analyses
Chapter 1: Summary
What Is a Summary?
Can a Summary Be Objective?
Using the Summary
BOX: Where Do We Find Written Summaries?
The Reading Process
BOX: Critical Reading for Summary
How to Write Summaries
BOX: Guidelines for Writing Summaries
WILLYOUR JOB BE EXPORTED?–Alan S. Blinder
Read, Reread, Highlight
Divide into Stages of Thought
Write a Brief Summary of Each Stage of Thought
Write a Thesis: A Brief Summary of the Entire Passage
Write the First Draft of the Summary
Summary: Combine Thesis Sentence with Brief Section
The Strategy of the Shorter Summary
Summary 2: Combine Thesis Sentence, Section Summaries, and Carefully Chosen Details
The Strategy of the Longer Summary
How Long Should a Summary Be?
EXERCISE 1.1 : Individual and Collaborative Summary Practice
BOX: Rules for Avoiding Plagiarism
Chapter 2: Critical Reading and Critique
Question: To What Extent Does the Author Succeed in His or Her Purpose?
Writing to Inform
BOX: Where Do We Find Written Critiques?
Evaluating Informative Writing
Writing to Persuade
EXERCISE 2.1 : Informative and Persuasive Thesis Statements
Evaluating Persuasive Writing
WE ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL IN EVERYWAY–Joan Ryan
EXERCISE 2.2: Critical Reading Practice
Logical Argumentation: Avoiding Logical Fallacies
EXERCISE 2.3: Understanding Logical Fallacies
Writing to Entertain
Question 2: To What Extent Do You Agree with the Author?
Identify Points of Agreement and Disagreement
EXERCISE 2.4: Exploring Your Viewpoints–in Three Paragraphs
Explore the Reasons for Agreement and Disagreement:
BOX: Guidelines for Writing Critiques
How to Write Critiques
To What Extent Does the Author Succeed in His or Her Purpose?
To What Extent Do You Agree with the Author?
MODEL CRITIQUE: A CRITIQUE OF “WE ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL IN EVERY WAY”BY JOAN RYAN–Eric Ralston
EXERCISE 2.5: Informal Critique of the Model Critique
BOX: Critical Reading for Critique
The Strategy of the Critique
Chapter 3: Synthesis
What Is a Synthesis?
BOX: Where Do We Find Written Syntheses?
Using Your Sources
Types of Syntheses: Explanatory and Argument
Explanation: News Article from the New York Times
PRIVATE GETS 3 YEARS FOR IRAQPRISON ABUSE–David S. Cloud
Argument: Editorial from the Boston Globe
How to Write Syntheses
BOX: Guidelines for Writing Syntheses
The Argument Synthesis
The Elements of Argument: Claim, Support, and Assumption
EXERCISE 3.1 : Practicing Claim, Support, and Assumption
The Limits of Argument
Demonstration: Developing an Argument Synthesis–Balancing Privacy and Safety in the Wake of Virginia Tech
MASS SHOOTINGS AT VIRGINIA TECH–Report of the Review Panel
LAWS LIMIT SCHOOLS EVEN AFTER ALARMS–Jeff Gammage and Stacey Burling
PERILOUS PRIVACY ATVIRGINIA TECH–Christian Science Monitor
COLLEGES ARE WATCHING TROUBLED STUDENTS–
VIRGINIA TECH MASSACRE HAS ALTERED CAMPUS MENTAL
HEALTH SYSTEMS–Associated Press
THE FAMILY EDUCATIONAL RIGHTS AND PRIVACY ACT
EXERCISE 3.2: Critical Reading for Synthesis
Consider Your Purpose
Making a Claim: Formulate a Thesis
Decide How You Will Use Your Source Material
Develop an Organizational Plan
Formulate an Argument Strategy
Draft and Revise Your Synthesis
MODEL SYNTHESIS: BALANCING PRIVACY AND SAFETY IN THE WAKE OF VIRGINIA TECH–David Harrison
The Strategy of the Argument Synthesis
Developing and Organizing the Support for Your Arguments
Summarize, Paraphrase, and Quote Supporting Evidence
Provide Various Types of Evidence and Motivational Appeals
Use Climactic Order
Use Logical or Conventional Order
Present and Respond to Counterarguments
BOX: Developing and Organizing Support for Your Arguments
Avoid Common Fallacies in Developing and Using Support
The Comparison-and-Contrast Synthesis
Organizing Comparison-and-Contrast Syntheses
Organizing by Source or Subject
Organizing by Criteria
EXERCISE 3.3: Comparing and Contrasting
A Case for Comparison-and-Contrast: World War I and World War II
Comparison-and-Contrast Organized by Criteria
MODEL EXAM RESPONSE: KEY SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WORLD WARS I AND II
The Strategy of the Exam Response
The Explanatory Synthesis
Summary of Synthesis Chapters
Chapter 4: Analysis
What Is an Analysis?
BOX: Where Do We Find Written Analyses?
When Your Perspective Guides the Analysis
THE PLUG-IN DRUG–Marie Winn
EXERCISE 4.1 : Reading Critically: Winn
MODEL ANALYSIS: THE COMING APART OF A DORM SOCIETY– Edward Peselman
EXERCISE 4.2: Reading Critically: Peselman
How to Write Analyses
Consider Your Purpose
Locate an Analytical Principle
Formulate a Thesis
Part One of the Argument
BOX: Guidelines for Writing Analyses
Part Two of the Argument
Develop an Organizational Plan
Turning Key Elements of a Principle or Definition into Questions
Developing the Paragraph-by-Paragraph Logic of Your Paper
Draft and Revise Your Analysis
Write an Analysis, Not a Summary
Make Your Analysis Systematic
Answer the “So What?” Question
Attribute Sources Appropriately
BOX: Critical Reading for Analysis
Analysis: A Tool for Understanding
An Anthology of Readings
Chapter 5: The Changing Landscape of Work in the Twenty-first Century
DEFINITIONS: WORK, CAREER, PROFESSION, VOCATION
A sociologist, a philosopher, a pope, and others define work and work-related activities as these have evolved over the centuries.
FIXED AND FOOTLOOSE: WORK AND IDENTITY IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY–Ursula Huws
In the new economy, writes a professor of international labor studies, corporations distribute work across the globe and laborers cross continents to find work–twin “upheavals” that are “transforming social identities and structures.”
NO LONG TERM: NEW WORK AND THE CORROSION OF CHARACTER–Richard Sennett
The life of a winner in the new “No long term” economy is chronicled by a sociologist. His conclusion: “The . . . behavior which has brought [this man] success is weakening his own character in ways for which there exists no practical remedy.”
I FEEL SO DAMN LUCKY!–Tom Peters
Here are six “minimal survival skills for the 21st century office worker” in a business environment of “monumental change and gargantuan opportunity,” according to the up-beat coauthor of an influential business management book.
WORK AND WORKERS IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY–Richard W. Judy and Carol D’Amico
A map that demystifies “the journey America’s labor force is now beginning” into an economy that will enrich some but frustrate others–courtesy of the Hudson Institute, a policy research organization.
THE UNTOUCHABLES–Thomas Friedman
Workers in the new economy had better make themselves “untouchable”–or risk losing their jobs to automation or competitors overseas–warns the Pulitzer Prize winning journalist in this excerpt from his best-selling book The World is Flat.
WILL YOUR JOB BE EXPORTED?–Alan S. Blinder
There’s a critical difference between “personal” and “impersonal” jobs in the service economy, according to this economist and former presidential advisor. Not knowing this difference could cost you a job–no matter how well educated you may be.
INTO THE UNKNOWN–The Economist
Concerned about losing jobs to globalization? Relax: “What the worriers always forget is that the same changes in production technology that destroy jobs also create new ones.”
OCCUPATIONAL OUTLOOK HANDBOOK / TOMORROW’S JOBS–
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Want to know the outlook for any career field you can think of? Two Web sites created by a division of the United States Department of Labor provide a wealth of information about hundreds of jobs.
Chapter 6: Green Power
205 EASY WAYS TO SAVE THE EARTH–Thomas L. Friedman
Actually, there are no easy ways to save the earth, declares this Pulitzer Prize- winning New York Times columnist. Rescuing the planet from the effects of climate change will be the biggest industrial task in history
THE DANGEROUS DELUSIONS OF ENERGY INDEPENDENCE–Robert Bryce
Americans may love the idea of independence; but energy independence is an idea whose ime has not come. “From nearly any standpoint–economic, military, political, or e nvironmental–energy independence makes no sense,” declares the author of Gusher of Lies.
WHY THE GASOLINE ENGINE ISN’T GOING AWAY ANY TIME SOON–Joseph B. White
Those who believe that plug-in hybrids, electric cars, and fuel cell vehicles are the wave of the near future are indulging in wishful thinking. An automotive reporter explains that the internal combustion engine has lasted as long as it has for good reasons.
THE CASE FOR AND AGAINST NUCLEAR POWER–Michael Totty
Can nuclear power help us reduce our dependence on fossil fuels like coal? Perhaps. But questions about the economics and safety of nuclear power plants have long stalled their construction, notes a Wall Street Journal reporter.
THE ISLAND IN THE WIND–Elizabeth Kolbert
Some years ago the residents of the Danish island of Samsø decided to generate all of the electricity used in their homes and farms from wind power. They succeeded.
WIND POWER PUFFERY–H. Sterling Burnett
A skeptic argues that the power–and appeal–of wind is considerably less than it appears.
STATE SOLAR POWER PLANS ARE AS BIG AS ALL OUTDOORS–Marla Dickerson
After the state of California mandated that 20 percent of its electrical power be generated from renewable sources by 20 0, solar projects began transforming the landscape: “Rows of gigantic mirrors covering an area bigger than two football fields have sprouted alongside almond groves
near California 99.”
ENVIRONMENTALISTS AGAINST SOLAR POWER–Peter Maloney
You might assume that all environmentalists love solar power. You’d be wrong.
Chapter 7: Marriage and Family in America
THE RADICAL IDEA OF MARRYING FOR LOVE–Stephanie Coontz
A historian of marriage first poses a few questions on how much we really know about the sacred institution. (Expect to be surprised.) Then she investigates when–and why–men and women began to marry for the “radical” idea of love.
A DEBATE ON GAY MARRIAGE–Andrew Sullivan/William J. Bennett
Why defenders of traditional values should support–or oppose–gay marriage. Two prominent spokespersons on opposite sides debate the issue.
THE SATISFACTIONS OF HOUSEWIFERY AND MOTHERHOOD/
PARADISELOST (DOMESTIC DIVISION)–Terry Martin Hekker
A housewife celebrates her role as a traditional mother. Almost thirty years and one divorce later, she has a different perspective.
UNDERSTANDING MOM–Deborah Tannen
A well-known linguist tries to see things from the perspective of her mother, who doesn’t understand why her daughter didn’t just stay married so she wouldn’t have to return to school in pursuit of a professional career.
THE MYTH OF CO-PARENTING: HOW IT WAS SUPPOSED TO BE. HOW IT WAS.–Hope Edelman
An angry wife writes of the “stalled revolution”–the continued failure of men to share equally in the housework: “It began to make me spitting mad, the way the daily duties of parenting and home ownership started to rest entirely on me.”
MY PROBLEM WITH HER ANGER–Eric Bartels
A husband responds to complaints such as Edelman’s: “For women of my generation, anger appears to have replaced the quiet desperation of the past.”
WILLYOUR MARRIAGE LAST?–Aviva Patz
Short of a crystal ball, how can we predict whether marriages will succeed or fail? A researcher who tracked 68 married couples over 3 years believes that he has found the key.
Chapter 8: To Sleep
A THIRD OF LIFE–Paul Martin
“Sleep: a state so familiar yet so strange. It is the single most common form of human behaviour and you will spend a third of your life doing it–25 years or more, all being well.”
IMPROVING SLEEP–Lawrence Epstein, MD, Editor
A Harvard Special Health Report explains the mechanics of sleep and the internal “circadian” clock that governs our patterns of waking and sleeping.
AMERICA’S SLEEP-DEPRIVED TEENS NODDING OFF AT SCHOOL, BEHIND THEWHEEL–National Sleep Foundation
Findings of a recent poll: “Many of the nation’s adolescents are falling asleep in class, arriving late to school, feeling down and driving drowsy because of a lack of sleep that gets worse as they get older.”
SLEEP DEBT AND THE MORTGAGED MIND–William C. Dement and Christopher Vaughan
How much sleep do you owe your internal “sleep bank”? What happens to your brain when you fail to repay your sleep debt? (Hint: The collector demands his due.)
THE PITTSBURGH SLEEP QUALITY INDEX–Daniel Buysse
How well do you sleep? Take and score this test, a standard tool in the field of sleep research.
HOW SLEEP DEBT HURTS COLLEGE STUDENTS–June J. Pilcher and Amy S. Walters
So you think you can pull an “all-nighter” and ace an exam the next morning? Think again.
Chapter 9: New and Improved: Six Decades of Advertising
ADVERTISING’S FIFTEEN BASIC APPEALS–Jib Fowles
“[A]n advertising message contains something primary and primitive, an emotional appeal,
that in effect is the thin edge of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind.” Advertisements
are designed to appeal to the “unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of our
A PORTFOLIO OF PRINT ADVERTISEMENTS
Presenting, for your consideration, a series of striking magazine advertisements produced over the past six decades. No obligation to buy.
A PORTFOLIO OF TV COMMERCIALS
From the Energizer Bunny to text-messaging nuns, Madison Avenue has created an often-funny alternative consumer universe that compels viewing. Tune up your YouTube and get ready to laugh.